chemistry topic 6, rate and extent of chemical change

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  • the rate and extent of chemical change
    • factors affecting rate
      • temperature
        • increased energy
          • particles move faster
            • more frequent collisions
          • more particles with energy greater than the activation energy
            • more successful collisions
      • surface area
        • more particles the can collide
          • more frequent collisions
      • pressure
        • more particles in a given volume
          • more frequent collisions
      • catalyst
        • offer a route of lower activation energy
          • more particles have more energy than activation energy
            • more successful colisions
    • measuring rate
      • colour change
        • measure the time for a solution to turn from transparent to opaque
          • due to formation of precipitate
      • change in mass
        • experiment takes place on a balance
          • mass change is gas given off
            • over time (everty 10s)
      • volume of gas released
        • use gas syringe to measure volume of gas.
          • over time (every 10s)
    • reversible reactions
      • a reaction that can go in both directions
      • can reach dynamique equilibrium
        • only in a closed system
        • both reactions still hapening with no overall effect
      • one way exothermic, one way endothermic
    • le chatliers principle
      • if you change the conditions in a reversible reaction, the system will counteract the change
      • temperature
        • increase temperature
          • equilbrium shifts in endothermic direction
        • decrease  tempercture
          • equilibrium shifts in exothermic direction
      • pressure
        • increase pressure
          • equilibrium moves in the direction of fewer molecules
        • decrease pressure
          • equililbrium shifts in direction or more molecules
      • concerntration
        • increase conc. of products
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