Prison Service Developments

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  • The Prison Service
  • History
    • Contemporarydevelopments
      • 21st century
        • 136-139 prisons in England and Wales
        • Overcrowding
          • Warmsley (2005) -70%
          • Tierney (2010) increased by 38% since 1997
          • Prison Reform Trust (2016) Increased by 92% since 1993.
          • Less chance for rehabilitation
        • More focus on rehabilitation
          • Gov (2017)       -Paid work for prisoners, woodwork, IT, engineering,     -Protection rights             -HMP Durham educational programmes, gym, etc.
          • Vocational, educational and treatment for drugs and alcohol
      • 20th century
        • 1907 Probation Service
          • The Guardian (2007) Act allows courts to suspend punishment and discharge offenders with a probation officer for one to three years
        • Prevention of Crime Act 1908 borstals and juvenile system separate
    • 19th century
      • Transportation decline in popularity
      • 1868 public executions moved from public view
      • 1895-The Gladstone Committee
        • 1898 The Prison Act passed-beginning of modern prison system
    • 18th Century
      • Gaols or jails-designed to hold those awaiting trial or couldn't pay fines
        • 1779-Penitentiary Act- people became more concerned with living conditions of prisoners in gaols- rehabilitation focus
      • 1757-Damiens the Regicide (Foucault 1977)
        • Amende honourable
      • Punishment of the body and deterrence
      • Newburn (2007) Transported to America- 1770's Declaration of independence-Australia voyage 1787
  • Late 18th century-Bentham's Panopticon
    • -Reductive      -Mechanistic    -Inhumane
    • 1965-Gertrude Himmelfarb-oppresion and social control
    • 1977-Foucault-representation of today's institutions
    • 18th Century
      • Gaols or jails-designed to hold those awaiting trial or couldn't pay fines
        • 1779-Penitentiary Act- people became more concerned with living conditions of prisoners in gaols- rehabilitation focus
      • 1757-Damiens the Regicide (Foucault 1977)
        • Amende honourable
      • Punishment of the body and deterrence
      • Newburn (2007) Transported to America- 1770's Declaration of independence-Australia voyage 1787
  • 1907 Probation Service
    • The Guardian (2007) Act allows courts to suspend punishment and discharge offenders with a probation officer for one to three years
  • Private prisons 1980's to 1990's
    • Jones and Newburn (2005) By 2004 9 privately operated prisons.
    • 20th century
      • Prevention of Crime Act 1908 borstals and juvenile system separate
  • Different options other than imprisonment
    • Restorative justice
      • Braithwaite
    • Fines
    • 21st century
      • 136-139 prisons in England and Wales
      • Overcrowding
        • Warmsley (2005) -70%
        • Tierney (2010) increased by 38% since 1997
        • Prison Reform Trust (2016) Increased by 92% since 1993.
        • Less chance for rehabilitation
      • More focus on rehabilitation
        • Gov (2017)       -Paid work for prisoners, woodwork, IT, engineering,     -Protection rights             -HMP Durham educational programmes, gym, etc.
        • Vocational, educational and treatment for drugs and alcohol

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