The Nervous System

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  • The Nervous System
    • Divisions of the nervous system
      • The nervous system is divided into the Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
        • CNS = Spinal cord and Brain
        • PNS = Somantic and Autonomic nervous system
          • Autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
    • CNS
      • Sensory receptors (eyes ears skin)
      • The spinal  cord:
        • Relays information between the brain and the rest of the body
          • Allows the brain to monitor and regulate bodily processes e.g digestion and breathing
        • Contains circuits of nerve cells that enable us to perform  simple reflexes without direct involvement from the brain
      • The brain:
        • 4 main areas
          • The Cerebrum
            • Largest part of the brain which is further divided into 4  lobes split into 2 hemispheres
            • Frontal lobe is involved with speech and the octal lobe is involved with processing images
          • The Cerbellum
            • Sits beneath the back of the Cerebrum
            • Involved in controlling motor skills and balance
          • The Diencephalon
            • Lies beneath the cerebrum contains the thalamus (relay station) and the hypothalamus (regulation and also involved with controlling release of hormones)
          • The Brain stem
            • Responsible for regulating the automatic functions that are essential for life
    • PNS
      • Relays nerve impulses from the CNS  to the rest of the body and back to the CNS
      • The Somatic nervous system:
        • Made up of Cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
          • Both have sensory and motor neurons
        • Involved with reflex action without the CNS
      • The Autonomic nervous system:
        • Involuntary actions like your heart beating and digestion are regulated by the ANS
          • Without being consciously aware of them happening
        • The Sympathetic nervous system:
          • Primarily involved in responses that help deal with emergencies
            • Increasing heart rate and blood pressure and dilating blood  vessels in muscles
          • Neurons from the SNS travel to almost every organ and gland within the body preparing the body for necessary when individual is under threat
          • Causes the body to release stored energy, pupil dilate and hair stands up and slows bodily processes like digestion and urination
        • The Parasympathetic nervous system:
          • Relaxes the individual after the emergency has passed
          • Slows heart rate and BP
          • Digestion begin again
          • Involved with energy conservation  and digestion


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