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  • Created by: jessse
  • Created on: 04-10-15 19:57
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  • The components of fitness
    • agility
      • Agility – The ability to stop, start, and change directions quickly. Agility is a skill-related component of physical fitness. One’s agility can be increased by doing specific footwork drills on an agility ladder, staggered tire formation, or any other type of obstacle course that requires the individual to adjust body position, speed, and direction quickly. Pictured below is a good example of an agility sprint test. Agility can be tested by timing individuals running through a series of staggered cones or obstacles for a predetermined distance
    • balance
      • Balance – Controlling body positions while standing still or moving. Balance is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Balance can be tested by standing on one leg with eyes closed for 30 seconds on each leg or by performing the Y-Balance Test. Balance can be improved by increasing one’s overall core strength. Specific training techniques using exercise equipment such as balance discs, Fit-Balls, BOSU, or standing on one leg while performing an exercise can help to improve one’s balance.
    • body composition
      • Body Composition – The ratio of muscle to fat in the body. Having a high percentage of body fat compared to lean muscle has shown to increase risk of heart disease, certain cancers, strokes, and diabetes. Doing daily cardiovascular exercise and strength training, along with a healthy diet, will help to reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass. Body Composition can be measured by skinfold calipers, waist-to-hip ratios, circumference measurements, bioelectric impedence, and hydrostatic weighing.
    • cardiovascular endurance
      • Cardiovascular Endurance – Engaging in physical activity for long periods of time. Cardiovascular endurance can be measured indoors by performing a 3 minute step test or by stress tests on a treadmill or stationary bike. Cardiovascular endurance can also be measured by field tests such as Cooper’s 12-minute Run, the 1.5 Mile Run, the 600 Yard Walk/Run, or a Shuttle Run. However, some disadvantages to outdoor field tests include wind, humidity, and temperature. Cardiovascular endurance is a health-related component of physical fitness.
    • co ordination
      • Coordination – Making movements work together smoothly. This usually consists of upper and lower body movements being performed at the same time. Coordination is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Coordination can be improved by performing exercises that require the individual to use upper body muscle groups and lower body muscle groups at the same time. Coordination can be tested with a variety of manual dexterity tests and hand/eye coordination tests. One example of such test is balancing on one leg and throwing a tennis ball against a wall and catching the returning ball in the opposite hand. Please view our gallery to see examples of exercises you can do to improve your coordination.
    • flexibility
      • Flexibility – Moving specific joints or a group of joints through a wide range of motion (ROM). Flexibility is a health-related component of physical fitness that plays a very important role in the functioning of all individuals especially athletes. Examples of flexibility include: a gymnast doing a leg split, a hockey goalie reaching with arms and/or legs to save a goal, someone doing yoga, or bending over to touch your toes. The most common tests for flexibility include the Sit-and-Reach Test and the Shoulder Joint Reach Flexibility Test. There are three techniques that can be used to increase one’s flexibility: ballistic stretching, static stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.
    • muscular endurance
      • Muscular Endurance – Using muscles repetitively without fatiguing for an extended period of time. Muscular Endurance can be measured by a 60 second push-up test or 60 second half sit-up or crunch test. Muscular endurance is a health-related component of physical fitness.
    • muscular strength
      • Muscular Strength – Producing force using muscles. Muscular strength has also been defined as the maximum pull or push that can be exerted one time by a muscle group. Muscular Strength is a health-related component of physical fitness. Muscular Strength can be measured by performing a 1 repetition maximum (RM) test or a 10 RM test on a chest press in order to test upper body strength.
    • power
      • Power – The ability to use muscle strength quickly. Power is a skill-related component of physical fitness. How can power be improved or increased? Power can be increased by three general ways: increase the force-producing capabilities of muscles; decrease the time it takes to move across a distance due to faster speed; and increase the distance a force acts on one’s body.
    • reaction time
      • Reaction Time – How quickly an individual responds to a stimulus. Reaction time is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Reaction time can be tested in a variety of ways. A simple test is a Reaction Time Ruler Test or a Reaction Time Tester found at TopEndSports.com . Click here to take the test.
    • speed
      • Speed – Performing a movement or covering a distance in a short period of time. Speed is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Speed can be measured by timing a 40-yard dash, 30 meter sprint, or the Illinois Agility Test. Individuals can increase speed by sprinting down hill or wearing a small parachute or weighted vest on your back while sprinting.
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    • arobic endurance
      • Aerobic Endurance is one of the main fitness components, important for success in many sports. Certain sports, such as distance running and triathlon, it is the most important physical attribute. In many other sports, including football codes, good endurance is also very important as part of the overall fitness profile. A vote of the top sports requiring endurance has the obvious ones of track and field distance runners, road cyclists and longer distance swimmers in the top three.


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