The Cell

View mindmap
  • The Cell
    • Common features
      • Have all inherited from their cellular predecessors, and can pass onto their daughter cells, in the form of genes
      • All have a cellular membrane, sometimes called a plasma membrane
      • All carry out metabolism to produce energy
      • All are capable of some form of movement
    • Eukaryotes
      • Plants
      • Animals
      • Fungi
      • Protists
        • Protozoa
        • Algae
      • All have a membrane bound nucleus
      • Exist as single cell enitites or as more complex multicellular organisms
      • Generally they are much larger than prokaryotes
    • Prokaryotes
      • Bacteria
      • Archaea
      • Do not contain a membrane bound nucleus
      • Tend to exist as single cell entities
      • Generally they are much smaller than eukaryotes
    • Diffusion across the plasma membrane
      • Channel proteins
        • water channels
        • ion channels
      • Phospholipid bilayer
        • fat soluble molecules
    • Mitochondria
      • Carry out aerobic respiration
      • Require oxygen
      • Breakdown pyruvate to create energy
      • Produce ATP
    • Nucleus
      • loosly packed DNA
        • chromatin for cell division
      • Nucleolus
        • centre of nucleus
        • contains genes that produce ribosomes
    • Rough and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Rough
        • has ribosomes on its surface
        • translate mRNA into polypeptides and basic proteins
      • Smooth
        • synthesises lipids, phospholipids and steroids
    • Ribosomes
      • large and small sub-units join to form a ribosome
      • functions to translate mRNA into protein
    • Golgi apparatus
      • sorts, modifies and packages proteins
      • proteins packaged into vesicles ready for transport


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »