The Acts passed for American West

View mindmap
  • The Act/ boundaries/ laws passed on American West
    • 1830's
      • Settlers
        • 1834- Indian Trade and Intercourse Act p16
          • said land west of Mississippi R was NA's but not in 3 states
          • stopped W settle on NA's land
          • stopped sale of guns and alcohol to NA
          • Frontier guarded by army with forts
      • Restrain Indians
        • 1834- Permanent Indian Frontier p16
          • separate W and NA
        • 1830- Indian Removal Act p16
          • pressured 46,000 NA's to move W of Mississippi R
          • promised land for ever in Indian territory
            • protected from NA's already there and settlers
    • 1840's
    • 1850's
      • Restrain Indians
        • 1851- Fort Laramie Treaty p28
          • aim to stop conflicts between NA and US and guarantee safe access for migrants across NA's lands, and for them to live on 5 fixed territories
          • Some problems when negotiating
            • Choosing council representatives
            • getting representatives for all tribes
            • agreeing boundaries
            • translation problems
          • first step towards reservations
            • saying migrants could travel undermined Permanent Indian Frontier
              • gov pay annuities to compensate
        • 1851-Indians Appropriations Act p17
          • gov pay NA to move onto reservations
          • hunting lands allocated
            • by reducing land hoped become farmers
        • 1851- Dakota Sioux bands signed treaty p63
          • gave up land to move to 2 reservations and get money
            • thought would give security to NA
          • problems
            • before treaty built debt with traders and before received money had to pay debt, they refused so gave gov excuse to not pay
            • reservations not enough food for winter so when left punished by not getting annuity
            • traders cheat NA's with with holding and then high prices
            • settlers taking land
            • conflicts as raids of storhouses to get prvisions
      • Settlers
        • 1851- Fort Laramie Treaty p28
          • aim to stop conflicts between NA and US and guarantee safe access for migrants across NA's lands, and for them to live on 5 fixed territories
          • Some problems when negotiating
            • Choosing council representatives
            • getting representatives for all tribes
            • agreeing boundaries
            • translation problems
          • first step towards reservations
            • saying migrants could travel undermined Permanent Indian Frontier
              • gov pay annuities to compensate
      • Cattle and Ranchers
        • 1855- Quarantine law in Missouri blocks Texas Cattle p49
          • cowboys herded cattle on drives through land
          • Texas fever killed Missouri cow so farmers against them crossing
      • Conflict
        • 1851- Dakota Sioux bands signed treaty p63
          • gave up land to move to 2 reservations and get money
            • thought would give security to NA
          • problems
            • before treaty built debt with traders and before received money had to pay debt, they refused so gave gov excuse to not pay
            • reservations not enough food for winter so when left punished by not getting annuity
            • traders cheat NA's with with holding and then high prices
            • settlers taking land
            • conflicts as raids of storhouses to get prvisions
    • 1860's
      • Restrain Indians
        • 1861- Treaty of Fort Wise p64
          • Fort Laramie Treaty 1864 broken when prospectors crossing land + wanted NA to move onto reservations
          • Black Kettle agree to move to reservation but many rejected it so conflict
            • after 3yrs conflict BK and gov try to get agreement
              • believing under army protection goes to Sand Creek
                • Sand Creek Masscare
        • 1868- 2nd Fort Laramie Treaty p66
          • Due to Red Clouds success gov agreed to close Bozeman trail and take NA to reservation
          • recognised this reservation just for Sioux
          • Some did not want to sign treaty
      • Settlers
        • 1862- Homestead Act p39
          • promoted settlement on W, gave incentives to claim land
          • before divided land into too big pieces = people couldn't afford it so now 160 acres + only $10 to claim
            • most could get claim, limit of 1 persons claims, after 5 yrs with house + crops= $30= own homestead outright = proving up
          • meant W settled on and encouraged immigration from Europe
          • problems
            • only 40% proved up
            • W bought land from raialroad companies
            • meant employees gave rights to employer = v. rich few
            • many sold land for profit
      • Transport
        • 1862- Pacific Railroad Act p39
          • split the job of building train for 2 companies
          • stop NA's rights to land along routes
          • gov loaning money to companies
          • giving land along tracks for companies to sell
      • Conflicts
        • 1868- P. Grant peace policy p 62
          • aim to stop conflict between NA and army
            • replace corrupt reservation agents with quakers
            • Appoint Ely Parker as commissioner of Indian Affairs
            • $2 million to care for NA and force onto reservations
              • If not on reservation = hostile and attacked
    • 1870's
      • Settlers
        • 1873- Timber Culture Act p46
          • Correcting Homestead Act
          • allow settlers to collect further 160 acres if planted trees on 1/4
            • loop holes: people claimed and sold for profit later
      • Restrain Indians
        • 1871 Indian Appropriation Act p62
          • No NA nation is independent who can have contracts with gov
            • prev treaties still there but easier for gov to take land (not under treaty) and give to settlers
    • 1880's
      • Settlers
        • 1885- P. Cleveland orders settlers to stay out  of Indian Territory p71
      • Restraining Indians
        • 1887- Dawes Act p95
          • like Homestead Act for NA families
            • given 160 acres of reservation land
              • NA's who took offer and left reservation could be US citizens
                • all land left over = can be sold to whites often railroad and land speculator
                  • made life for NA's impossible: lost 1/2 lands, allotments = rubbish land
                    • most gave up and sold to W= landless
              • so: break up chiefs power, make farmers, make US citizens, land for W, reduce cost of reservation system
    • 1890's
      • Settlers
        • 1890- US census office say Indian Frontier has ended p88/96
          • as settled all over states made in west
            • cities, railroads, mining, cattle towns
      • Restraining Indians
        • 1890- US census office say Indian Frontier has ended p88/96
          • as settled all over states made in west
            • cities, railroads, mining, cattle towns
    • 1900's

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The American West 1840-1895 resources »