British America 1713-83 Paper 2

British Settlement in North America-Development in

Mixed group of immigrants came to British America creating tension between different groups in colonial society.

Trade with Britain / West Indies helped grow economy grow.

Tobacco was very important product in some Southern Colonies, demand for it in Britian increased during 1700s.

Tea popularity increased with colonists, this shared habit helped strengthen bond between Britain / North America.

Piracy severly damaged trade in American waters between 1715 / 1725.

British Government including King George 1 / parliament, took steps 2 encourage others to end piracy.

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Slavery in North America

Huge numvers of slaves arrived in British America via Atlantic Traingle, most ened up in Southern colonies.

'Asiento' gave Britain a monopoly on supply of slaves 2 Spanish Colonies.

Slavery helped tobacco / rice plantations grow rapidly.

Slaves were treated poorly / held lowest position in colonial society. 

Colonists depended on slaves for income but were afraid they might rebel.

Spain's decision 2 protect runaway slaves increased risk of slave rebellion.

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Problems within colonies

Stono Rebellion 1739 biggest slave revolt in British America.

Rebellion led 2 introduction ***** Act 1740 restricting slaves freedom.

Leaders of New York thought there was Slave / Catholic conspiracy 2 detroy their city 1741.

New York Conspiracy 1741 resulted in limitations on freedoms for all black people in New York.

There was a number of measures 2 collect customs revenue in British America, but these not very effective.

Smuggling / lack of enforcement made it difficult 2 collect revenue / control trade.

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Disrupted Society 1742-64 Impact Cultural Developm

Great Awakening renewed enthusiasm for religion among poorer colonists in New England / the middle colonies.

Religious revivals also encouraged conversion of black people / Native Americans.

Enlightment encouraged foundation of new schools / colleges / broadened range of subjects on offer.

Enlightenment led 2 growth of newspapers / public libraries.

Benjamin Franklin influenced by Enlightenment ideas hlped 2 develop / spread them.

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War

British fought against French / thier Native american allies during King George's War (1744-48)After war, British colonists angered Native Americans / French as they expanded into Ohio Country.

British forces suffered defeats in French / Indian war (1754-63)until William  Pitt became prime minister.

Britain took control of Ohio Country by capturing Fort Duquesne 1758.

General Wolfe play central role in capture of Quebec 1759 leading 2 end of war in Canada.  

Treaty of Paris 1763 gave Britain control of huge area of North America / Canada.

Royal Proclamation 1763 established boundary between British America / Native Americn territory.

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Aftermath of War

French / Indian war 1754-63 damaged relations between British America / mother country.

Sugar act 1764 was first attempt 2 raise money from colonists 2 help pay off national debt.

Colonists used range of methods 2 oppose sugar act.

General Amhesrt damaged relations bettween British / Native Americans at end of French / Indian war.

Pontiac's Rebellion 1763-64 ledt 2 capture of British forts / death of frontier settlers.

Action of Paxton Boys 1763-64 let 2 death of peaceful Native Americans / increase in illegal settlement on Native American land.

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British and American relations:the stirrings of re

British policies tried 2 raise money from colonists though new taxes / duties.

Colonists united against stamp act 1765 under leadership of Sons of Liberty, 2 force its repeal.

Events in Boston - Boston Massacre 1770 / Boston Tea Party 1773 which damaged relations between Britian / Colonists.

Parliament punished colonists for Boston Tea Party with Intolerable acts 1774 restricting their freedom.

First Continental Congoress 1774 organised a complete boycott of trade with Britian in reponse to Intolerable acts.

Second continental Congress 1775 prepared colonies for war with Britian / appointed George Washington commader-in-chief of its new army.

Britian declared colonies were in state of rebellion / passed American Prohibitory Act 1775.

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War of Independence 1775-83

Thomas Paine's common sense 1776 encouraged Americans seek independance.

Decleration of independace 1776 drafted by Thomas Jefferson gave Americans clear goal 2 fight for.

Americans forced British armies 2 surrender at Saratoga 1777 / Yorktown 1781

George Washington, with French / Spanish support led Americans 2 victory in War of Independance 1775-83

British Generals followed bad plans, communited poorly / turned many neutral Americans into rebels.

Treaty of Paris 1783 largely negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, meant USA was recognised as independant country.

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Consequences of war in America

Decleration of Independance 1776 helped many slaves in northern states gain their freedom.

Decleration did not help slaves in South, meaning many decided escape during War of Independence 1775-83.

Native American relations with USA, as well as relations with other tribes were damaged by war.

After war Americans increased their rate of settlement on Native American land so many Native Americans were forced 2 leave their ancestral homes.

Loyalists had their property taken from them during war / faced violence / threats once it came 2 end.

Many loyalists chose 2 resettle in Nova Scotia / Quebec, but this was difficult process.

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