Teleological Argument

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  • Teleological Argument
    • The teleological argument of Aquinas
      • Aquinas' fifth way is know as the Teleological Argument (from the Greek 'telos' meaning purpose)
        • Things that lack knowledge cannot achieve anything unless directed by someone with knoweldge
        • This suggests that there is a being hat directs all things
        • For Aquinas, there is an intelligent being that directs everyone towards a purpose - who is called God
        • All natural occurences show evidence of design
        • The argument attempts to show that the universe is being directed towards a telos and that there is evidence of intelligent design in the world, which infers the existence of a designer
    • David Hume's criticisms
      • Hume's second argument
        • It is very possible that the world came about by chance
        • This is due to either chance or design
        • The world is ordered
      • Hume's first argument
        • There is great design in the world
        • Great design implies a great designer
        • Therefore, there must be a great designer - God
        • To speak of design is to imply a designer
      • Furthermore, Hume says that there is nothing in the argument to suppose that there is only one creator - there may a team of lesser Giods that built the world
        • This supports paganism
      • Hume set out two versions of the design argument and then criticised them
      • Hume also supported the idea of natural selection
        • He proposed that it was entirely possible that a series of random adaptions made in order to survive led to the apparent intelligent design of humans
      • Hume argues that this analogy in fact implies a superhuman, anthromorphic concept of God, which is inconsistent with the notion of perfection.
        • Also, the world is imperfect and flawed. Does this imply an incompetent designer?
    • William Paley's argument 'Natural Thelogy'
      • Design qua purpose
        • Stone-natural could have been there for years
          • Watch-Multiple parts-different =different purpose. Complex for chance.
            • Reproducing watches-if designer make watch that could reproduce itself perfectly then increased awe. Compare world where millions reproduce daily more interested by world designer
            • Eye-specific design
      • Design qua Regularity
        • Further evidence at universe regularity
        • Motion of planets-if gravity stronger or weaker humans might not exist
    • Darwinist challenges
      • Richard Dawkins
        • Natural selection gave the appearance of design, which led to the mistake of assuming design in the universe
        • Supported Darwin by saying that random mutations in DNA alone gave rise to variation in the world.
      • Charles Darwin
        • Apparent world design result of natural and random process.
        • Theory of Natural Selection- fittest and healthiest survive and procreate.
        • Steve Johns 'A series of successful mistakes'
        • Ex: Longer necked Giraffe eat more lives, survives and procreates. Shorter necked dies
    • J.S Mill's criticism
      • Questions God's omnibenevolenence and worthiness of worship not existence
      • Example: Claws, poison weapons designed to cause pain and parasites creatures survive by feeding off others
      • 'Nearly all the things which man are hanged or imprisoned for doing to one another are nature's everyday performance'

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