Stalins russia 

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  • Stalins russia
    • How did hitter gain power
      • General secretary
        • Control over nomenklatura and apparatchiki, times dates who invited and topics of discussion.
      • Troika
        • Saved him from Lenins testament after Stalin rude to Lenins wife and stated never to trust Stalin
      • lennins funeral
        • Tricked Trotsky with his position to miss the funeral then had a Lennin levy of 100 old Bolsheviks who supported Lennin and now Stalin
      • Policies
        • Advocated socialism in one country rather than permanent revolution
      • Nep
        • Everyone agreed russia needed to have a strong industrial revolution to have a communist revolution larger proletariat and fewer peasants.
          • Allowed a certain degree of private enterprise attacked by trosky and 46 others who at the 13th party congress were accused for political anhililation
      • personality
        • Stalin cheery and friendly compared to trosky who was arrogant and aloof.
      • OGPU and secret police
      • Agitprop and agitrains
        • Persuade people to like Stalin and spread his name into countrysides.
    • Collectivisation
      • Process
        • Aim was to make farming more efficient and stop having to seize grain. So began persuading sharing of farms to defeat kulaks, who prospered under the NEP.  Each farm to produce certain amount and sell for low price.
      • Success
        • By 1939 all farms collectivised
        • After 1933 grain production increased
        • Farms ran by communists so communism spread to countryside
        • More efficient  equiptment
      • Failure
        • 5 million died famine
        • At first grain production fell
        • 5 million  kulaks liquidated
        • Poor conditions
        • Farmers way of life gone
        • Similar to war communism before NEP
        • Kill luvestock and produce in protest
    • 5 year plans
      • State control "gosplan"
      • New towns such as Magnitogorsk
      • 13 million peasants sent to work in cities.
      • Increase in coal, oil, steel, electricity production.
      • All under communist lead
      • New   Dnieper dam
      • Arrears in urals and Siberia.
      • Enthusiasm due to stakhanovites
      • Growth in science and technology
      • 3 five year plans. 1928-1933 focused on production and although targets weren't met there was progress. The third five year plans began to focus on consumer goods but distrusted by  war. Focused on munitions and weapons.
      • Had to use terror and forced labour. Poor working and sanitary conditions and no consumer goods.
    • Getting rid of rivals
      • Trotsky
        • 24 he forced government to re read Lenins testament and saved by troika, trosky was forced to resign in 25. Expelled in 26, sent to prison camp in Siberia, and assassinated by a soviet agent in 1940.
      • Bukharin  Rykov Tomsky
        • Stalin began collectivisation to replace NEP. They became denounced as factionists then admitted guilt and we're demoted.
      • Zinoviev and Kamenev
        • Began to oppose NEP and said Stalin aimed for sole rule. United with trosky and expelled in 28.
    • Purges /Show trials/ Gulags
      • Kirov affair
        • Becoming  increasingly popular with 300 more votes than Stalin.
          • He stopped staking from murdering ryutin once ryutin demanded to repeal the NEP.
            • December 34' Kirov shot. Many suspected Stalin but sufficient evidence was lacking. So a NKVD was set up with Yagoda as leader. Claimed to be an act from the Moscow centre involving Zinoviev and kamenev. In 35 thousands of Leningrad people and the leftists were imprisoned.
              • Great purges began
      • Stalin began getting rid of rivals, then NKVD, central committee, then top army generals, then the ordinary people.
      • Staling began humiliating and making people plead to crimes they did not commit. Many people were executed or sent to gulags.
        • People who were a part of any of statins opponenents found themselves imprisoned.
          • Yeshovshina was the purging of the NKVD army and generals.
      • Did the purges strengthen the USSR?
        • Yes
          • Forced collectivisation and five year plans.
          • Attacked spies and wreckers
          • Government and army purged
          • Removed all his rivals
        • No
          • Constant fear smiling mask and terror.
          • Human cost huge
          • Armed forces weakened
            • 1936 constitution destroyed local government and "Russification destroyed indentiy
    • Cult of Stalin
      • Religion
        • Budding civil war many orthodox priests supported the whites and were killed. 90% mosques were closed and in 1929 churches banned from any activities apart from services. By 1939 only 9/126 priests survived. 1936 constitution allowed small churches so Stalin could claim freedom of religion
      • arts
        • Idea of socialist realism where all work had to be propaganda that glorified Stalin only. No individualisms. If too creative then sent to gulags. Pravda and media all controlled by government and censored.
      • Education
        • Exams and strict uniform put in place and everyone given seven years minimum at school. Made to learn Russian and all text books were written with any rivals removed. Children endoctrinate.
          • By  1939  94 percent of Russians were literate.
      • Family life
        • Abortion made illegal and divorce harder to achieve but women were rewarded with having more than seven babies and provided free childcare
      • Youth movements
        • Wanted to make  young people committed communists. Young groups joined pioneers and older 14-18 joined Komsomol.
    • 1936 constitution
      • Benefit to Stalin. Gave everyone care in old age, right to vote under 18, right to employment, most democratic, no more classes
      • However  still restrictions on rights, and only communist party members could stand for election.
  • Policies
    • Advocated socialism in one country rather than permanent revolution

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