Spanish Grammar Revision

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  • Spanish Grammar Revision
    • The infinitive is the raw form of a verb, for example, 'Bailar'
      • The stem is the infinitive without the last two letters
    • Present Tense
      • Endings for -ar verbs: O, AS, A, AMOS, AIS, AN
      • Endings for -er verbs: O, ES, E, EMOS, EIS, EN
      • Endings for -ir verbs: O, ES, E, IMOS, IS, EN
      • SER: Soy, Eres, Es, Somos, Sois, Son
        • ESTAR: Estoy, Estas, Esta, Estamos, Estais, Estan
        • IR: Voy, Vas, Va, Vamos, Vais, Van
      • Reflexive Verbs (Things you do yourself)
        • Se = Oneself, Me = Myself, Te = Yourself, Se = Himself / Herself / Itself / Themselves, Nos = Ourselves, Os = Yourselves
        • For example (Lavar) : ME LAVO, TE LAVAS, SE LAVA, NOS LAVAMOS, OS LAVAIS, SE LAVAN
        • Imperfect Reflexive
          • Construct imperfect as normal ( E.g. He levantado)  and put the 'Me', 'Te, 'Se' etc. in front. E.g. Me He Levantado = I have gotten up
    • Immediate Future (I am going to......)
      • Proper Future (I will.....)
        • Endings for ALL infinitives: E, AS, A, EMOS, EIS, AN
        • Irregulars: Dire, Habre, Hare, Tendre, Podre, Querre, Sabre, Vendre, Saldre, Podre
        • REMOVE NO LETTERS FOR THE STEM
      • Ir in the present tense + a + verb infinitve
      • Conditional (e.g. I would......)
        • Endings for ALL infinitives: IA, IAS, IA, IAMOS, IAIS, IAN
        • REMOVE NO LETTERS FOR THE STEM
        • Alternatives: Querer = Querria = replaced with 'Quisiera'
          • Haber = Habria = replaced with 'Hubiera'
    • Perfect Tense (I have.......)
      • Forming Past Participles (English = -ed words)
        • -AR verbs = drop the -ar and add -ado
        • -ER / -IR verbs= drop the -er / -ir and add -ido
      • Formation: Present tense of 'Haber' + the past participle
        • Present tense of Haber: HE, HAS, HA, HEMOS, HABEIS, HAN
          • E.g. He perdido mi maleta = I have lost my suit case
    • Past Tenses
      • Preterite Tense (I did.....)
        • Endings for -AR verbs: E, ASTE, O, AMOS, ASTEIS, ARON
        • Endings for -ER / -IR verbs: I, ISTE, IO, IMOS, ISTEIS, IERON
        • SER + IR have the same irregular preterite: FUI,  FUISTE, FUE, FUIMOS, FUSTEIS, FUERON
          • ESTAR: ESTUVE, ESTUVISTE, ESTUVO, ESTUVIMOS, ESTUVISTEIS
            • They were: ESTUVIERON
          • HACER: HICE, HICISTE, HIZO, HICIMOS, HICISTEIS, HICIERON
      • Pluperfect Tense (I had........)
        • Formation: Imperfect of Haber + past participle
          • Imperfect of Haber: HABIA, HABIAS, HABIA, HABIAMOS, HABIAIS, HABIAN
          • E.g. Habian ido a la playa = They had gone to the beach
      • Imperfect Tense (I was / used to...)
        • Endings for -AR: ABA, ABAS, ABA, ABAMOS, ABAIS, ABAN
        • Endings for -ER / -IR: IA, IAS, IA, IAMOS, IAIS, IAN
        • IR: IBA, IBAS, IBA, IBAMOS, IBAIS, IBAN
          • SER: ERA, ERAS, ERA, ERAMOS, ERAIS, ERAN
          • HABIA = There was / were
  • IRREGULARS

Comments

Ms Casas

This is a fantastic grammatical abstract that summarises the most important rules to learn to decline verbs into different tenses and persons. It includes the most important irregular verbs, too. It is a great visual support that will help you to learn the rules to form the different tenses and to remember the different endings.  

answersindna

this is a good resource but is really hard to read

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