South Africa: Zulu Wars (1879)

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  • South Africa: Zulu Wars (1879)
    • Background
      • Cape of Good Hope was originally colonized by Dutch Settlers
        • But as a result of the 1815 Vienna Treaty, ownership passed to Britain
          • This was disliked many Dutch Farmers (known as Boers) who disliked British Rule
            • In 1836, thousands upon thousands of them left the Cape in what is known as 'The Great Trek'
              • They founded two new states of their own
                • Transval and Orange Free State. The British still claimed sovereignty over them
                  • Reasonably, this caused relations between the Boer Republics and the two British colonies - Naval and Cape - to remained strained.
                    • Tension eased slightly after British recongized Transvaal Independence  in 1852.
                      • Background
                        • Cape of Good Hope was originally colonized by Dutch Settlers
                          • But as a result of the 1815 Vienna Treaty, ownership passed to Britain
                            • This was disliked many Dutch Farmers (known as Boers) who disliked British Rule
                              • In 1836, thousands upon thousands of them left the Cape in what is known as 'The Great Trek'
                                • They founded two new states of their own
                                  • Transval and Orange Free State. The British still claimed sovereignty over them
                                    • Reasonably, this caused relations between the Boer Republics and the two British colonies - Naval and Cape - to remained strained.
                                      • Tension eased slightly after British recongized Transvaal Independence  in 1852.
      • A threat to both the British and the Boers was the presence on the Naval/Transvaal border of a large and aggressive Zulu Tribe under their king, Cetawayo
        • in 138, the Boers had a major clash with the Zulu's at Blood River. 3,000 Zulu's were slaughtered
          • Cetawayo was eager to avenge this defeat but was not unfriendly to the British
        • The Colonial Secretary, Earl Carnarvon hoped to bring the Transvall and Orange Free State under British control in a union with Naval and Cape
          • Carnarvon was responsible for bringing the four provinces of Canada under one federalion in 1867. He had similar plans for South Africa
            • The circumstances in SA were different to Canada, however because the Boers were hostile to the idea,
        • Carnarvon decided the Boers, who were being harassed by another tribe, the Bapedi, as well as the Zulu's would be glad of British Protection.
          • He sent an-governor of Natal, Sir Theophilus Shepstone,  to sound the Boers out.
            • He found them to be nervous about Cetawayo and nearly bankrupt! With only 12s 6d in the treasury.
              • President Burgers of the Transvaal agreed to a British annexation of the republic. However, he was allowed to publicly protest.
                • Carnarvon also appointed Sir Bartle Frere as High Commissioner for South of Africa with the instructions to set up a federation
                  • Frere was a well-known supporter of expansionist policies
                    • Basically, a somewhat wayward commissioner
                      • Annoyed when he discovered Shepstone had promise the Boers  self-government. He decided the Zulu threat had to be removed.
                        • Frere disobeyed orders from London and took it upon himself to launch an invasion into Zulu-land
                          • Beginning of the war was disaterous for Britain
                            • The Commander, Lord Chelmsford and his invading army
                              • Were surprised attacked by a 20,000 strong Zulu Army at Isandhlwana in Jan 1879.
                                • Over 1,000 men lives were lost
                                  • Chelmsford had ignored advice given to him by the Boers to laager his wagons
                                    • In June of the same year was a further blow.
                                      • The Prince Imperial (son of the former emperor, Napoleon III) who had gone along as an observer had been killed by a Zulu Raiding Party
                                        • These events caused a public outcry in Britain
                            • Disraeli was angry with Frere
                              • He didn't know whether or not to sack him or back him-up.
                                • Frere received a  severe reprimand but at the same time Disraeli felt as though he had to send troops
                                  • It took several months before the situation was recovered and the Zulu's defeated at Ulundi
                                    • July 1879, Cetawayo was captured and deported
                  • Frere disobeyed orders from London and took it upon himself to launch an invasion into Zulu-land
                    • Beginning of the war was disaterous for Britain
                      • The Commander, Lord Chelmsford and his invading army
                        • Were surprised attacked by a 20,000 strong Zulu Army at Isandhlwana in Jan 1879.
                          • Over 1,000 men lives were lost
                            • Chelmsford had ignored advice given to him by the Boers to laager his wagons
                              • In June of the same year was a further blow.
                                • The Prince Imperial (son of the former emperor, Napoleon III) who had gone along as an observer had been killed by a Zulu Raiding Party
                                  • These events caused a public outcry in Britain
                      • Disraeli was angry with Frere
                        • He didn't know whether or not to sack him or back him-up.
                          • Frere received a  severe reprimand but at the same time Disraeli felt as though he had to send troops
                            • It took several months before the situation was recovered and the Zulu's defeated at Ulundi
                              • July 1879, Cetawayo was captured and deported
          • President Burgers of the Transvaal agreed to a British annexation of the republic. However, he was allowed to publicly protest.
            • Carnarvon also appointed Sir Bartle Frere as High Commissioner for South of Africa with the instructions to set up a federation
              • Frere was a well-known supporter of expansionist policies
                • Basically, a somewhat wayward commissioner
                  • Annoyed when he discovered Shepstone had promise the Boers  self-government. He decided the Zulu threat had to be removed.
        • Much criticism  had been aroused from the Liberals at the time
          • They complained about loss of life + expense involved

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