Soufriere Marine Management Area

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  • Soufriere Marine Management Area SMMA
    • background
      • around the coastal town of Soufriere on the Caribbean island of ST lucia
      • contains magnificent coral reefs
      • employment is mainly in agriculture, fishing or tourism
      • SMMA established in 1995
        • aims
          • reduce conflict among users
          • increase fish biomass in marine reserves
          • increase fish biodiversity
          • become a self-financing management area
    • ecosystems
      • dry cactus shrubs
      • rainforest
      • mangroves
      • coral reefs
      • high biodiversity
        • 1200 species of flowering plant
        • 5 endemic bird species
    • Threats to biodiversity
      • Forest and terrestrial wildlife
        • deforestation for the tourist industry
          • particularly scrub forest which are critical for endangered species
            • eg white breasted thrasher
        • over hunting and poaching of endemic species
          • St. Lucia muskrat is extinct
        • degradation of ecosystem
          • introduction of alien species
          • pollution
          • forest fires
      • coastal fires
        • destruction of coral reefs
          • boats anchors
          • tourists stepping on the coral
          • poor waste management
          • illegal trade of coral
          • unsustainable fishing methods
      • water security
        • higher demand than supply of water due industrialisation and population growth
          • declining water species
            • populations affected due to poor river management
      • soil erosion due to poor management  practises in agriculture
        • due to poor political support
      • climate change leading to the degradation of ecosystems
    • successful management
      • all of the aims were met
      • public awareness has been successful
        • bottom up approach
        • copra factory polluted water sources at the Soufriere bay
          • media raised public awareness
          • outrage caused the factory to be fines under the fisheries act
    • Failures
      • the agreement is not a formal contract
        • doesn't bind parties involved
          • would of made more progress if it was top down approach


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