outline short-term memory

  • Created by: imyimss
  • Created on: 12-11-18 11:03
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  • your memory for immediate events
    • SHORT-TERM  MEMORY
      • CODING
        • STM is largely encoded acoustically
        • Baddeley used lists to test semantic and acoustic similarity in LTM and STM
          • participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar works in STM but not LTM
          • semantically similar words posed little problem for STM but got muddled in LTM
      • CAPACITY
        • measure of how much can be held in the memory
          • represented in terms of bits of information, such as number of digits
        • digit span
          • joseph jacobs found that the average span of digits is 9.3 items and 7.3 for letters
          • could be easier to recall digits as there are only a possible 9 digits whereas there are 26 possible letters
        • the magic number: 7 +/- 2
          • span of immediate memory is about 7, but sometimes a bit more and sometimes a bit less
      • DURATION
        • peterson and peterson
          • participant given consonant syllable and three-digit number
            • had to recall consonant syllable after different retention interval: 3,6,9,12,15,18
              • had to count down form three-digit number during the retention interval
                • 90% correct after 3 seconds
                  • 20% correct after 9 seconds
                    • 2% correct after 18 seconds
        • STM duration is less than 18 seconds (when rehearsal is prevented)
    • measured in seconds and minutes (short duration)
      • they disappear unless they are rehearsed
        • has a limited capacity of a few items or chunks and tends to be coded acoustically
          • sometimes referred to as working memory
  • the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory
    • CODING
      • STM is largely encoded acoustically
      • Baddeley used lists to test semantic and acoustic similarity in LTM and STM
        • participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar works in STM but not LTM
        • semantically similar words posed little problem for STM but got muddled in LTM
    • enters the brain via the senses and is then sorted into its various forms
      • visual codes, acoustic codes (sound), semantic codes (meaning)

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