Sergei Witte

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  • Sergei Witte
    • Wanted to modernise Russia, create a bigger middle class and utilise Russia's natural resources
    • 1894- Established state liquor monopoly
      • Created tax revenue for the govt
    • 1897- Put the Rouble on the Gold Standard
      • Other countries trusted Russia's currency and therefore were encouraged to lend loans
      • Raised foreign confidence in Russia and negotiated a loan from France
        • Very important as Russia needed loans to create capital and develop economically
    • Played a major role in the contruction of the Trans-Siberian Railway
      • Linked western Russia to Eastern Russia allowing transportation of goods and improved communication
      • Although, peasants couldn't afford it and maybe would've been more beneficial joining up railways between smaller parts of the country
      • Created opportunity to exploit natural resources
    • August 1905- Negotiates successful peace with Japan
    • St Petersburg 1890- 1 million people             1914- 2 million
      • Showed Witte was achieving some modernisation
      • Also a negative as living conditions worsened and there wasn't enough housing
      • Working class increasing
    • Witte focused on exploiting heavy industry
    • Weak political base
      • Even Nicholas II who appointed Witte became scared of what he was doing, too dynamic
        • fear of westernisation
        • feared he was becoming too powerful


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