Sedimentary Rocks

Understanding the key characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks.

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  • Created by: Caitlin
  • Created on: 18-05-13 20:17
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  • Sedimentary Rocks
    • Sandstones
      • Orthoquartzite
        • Grains 0.0625 - 2mm
        • 90-99% Quartz
        • Quartz Cement
        • White/ Grey Colour
        • Well Sorted
        • Well Sorted
        • Only Stable Minerals Present
        • Beach and Shallow Marine Deposits
      • Desert Sandstone
        • Iron Oxide Coating = Red Colour
        • Well Sorted
        • Well Rounded
        • Medium Grained 1mm
        • Millet Seed Sand
        • Cemented together by Silica or Iron Minerals
        • Arid Environments
        • 90%+ Quartz
      • Arkose
        • Medium to Coarse Grained
        • At least 25% K Feldspar
        • 50% -  70% Quartz
        • Moderately Sorted
        • Pink in Colour
        • Sub Angular to Sub Rounded Clasts
        • Alluvial Fan environments in Arid Areas
      • Greywacke
        • Coarse Grained
        • Dark Coloured
        • Poorly Sorted
        • Angular to Sub-Angular
        • Many Rock Fragments
        • 50% Quartz with K Feldspar
        • <15% is Clay Matrix
        • Forms as Turbidite Deposits
        • Show Graded Bedding
    • Limestones
      • Oolitic Limestone
        • Chemically Formed
        • Medium Grained 1mm
        • Sub-Sphereical
        • Concentric layers of Calcium Carbonate
        • Calcite Mud Matrix (Micrite)
        • Calcite Cement (Sparite)
        • Tropical or Sub-tropical seas
        • Non Clastic
      • Fossiliferous Limestone
        • Biologically Formed
        • Bioclastic not clastic
        • Mircrite Matrix or Sparite Cement
        • Whole Fossils = Low Energy Environment
        • Broken Fossils = High Energy Environment
        • Forms in a range of Environments
        • Bivalve or Gastropod Shells
      • Chalk
        • Biologically Formed
        • Composed of Coccoliths - Skeletons of Algae
        • White in Colour = Pure Calcium
        • Low Energy Environments
        • Deep Water Shelf Environments
        • Non Clastic
    • Mudstone
      • Dark Grey in Colour
      • Very Fine Grained
      • Not Layered
      • Does not have Plasticity
      • Clay Minerals - Mica and Quartz
      • Clastic
      • Low Energy Environment
    • Clay
      • Very Fine Grained
      • Very Compact
      • 40% Water
      • Variety of Colour
      • Distinct Bedding Planes
      • Higher the Organic Material = Darker Colour
      • Plastic
      • Low Energy Environment
      • Clastic
    • Shale
      • Fine Grained
      • Clastic
      • Distinct Layers and Slaty Cleavage
      • Fissile - Easily splits along it's layers
      • Clay Minerals, Mica and Quartz
      • Not Plastic, Hard, Brittle, Impermeable
      • Low Energy Environment

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