Science - Chemistry

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  • Science - Chemistry
    • The Periodic Table
      • Columns - going down
        • In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of proton number, also called atomic number. This is the number of positive protons in each atom.
        • Columns of buildings always holds the building DOWN
      • The periodic table is divided into horizontal rows and vertical columns. The first row has only two elements: hydrogen and helium. The next row has eight elements, lithium to neon.
        • Rows (a.k.a. Periods) - Going across
          • Rows go from 1-7
        • Columns - going down
          • In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of proton number, also called atomic number. This is the number of positive protons in each atom.
          • Columns of buildings always holds the building DOWN
      • Rows (a.k.a. Periods) - Going across
        • Rows go from 1-7
      • Elements
        • Group 7 Elements
          • Halogens
            • The halogens have low melting points and boiling points. This is a typical property of non-metals. Fluorine has the lowest melting point and boiling point. The melting points and boiling points then increase as you go down the group.
            • Halogens are bleaching agents. They will remove the colour of dyes. Chlorine is used to bleach wood pulp to make white paper.
            • Halogens kill bacteria. Chlorine is added to drinking water at very low concentrations. This kills any harmful bacteria in the water, making it safe to drink. Chlorine is also added to the water in swimming pools.
  • Group 1 Elements
    • The shiny surface of sodium tarnishes more quickly than that of lithium. And potassium tarnishes more quickly than sodium. This shows the increasing reactivity of the metals as we go down the group.
    • Elements
      • Group 7 Elements
        • Halogens
          • The halogens have low melting points and boiling points. This is a typical property of non-metals. Fluorine has the lowest melting point and boiling point. The melting points and boiling points then increase as you go down the group.
          • Halogens are bleaching agents. They will remove the colour of dyes. Chlorine is used to bleach wood pulp to make white paper.
          • Halogens kill bacteria. Chlorine is added to drinking water at very low concentrations. This kills any harmful bacteria in the water, making it safe to drink. Chlorine is also added to the water in swimming pools.
    • Lithium, sodium and potassium are all soft metals that are easily cut with a scalpel or knife. The freshly cut surface is a shiny, silver colour, but this tarnishes quickly to a dull grey as the metal reacts with oxygen and water in the air. Pieces of such metals are stored in oil to prevent these reactions.

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