Peripetie

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  • Schoenberg: Peripetie from 'Five Orchestral Pieces' Opus 16 (1909)
    • Before Espressionism: The late romantic period
      • Towards the end of the 19th century. Music was...
        • Longer
        • Grander
        • Vaster
      • To keep structure interesting...
        • Keys
        • Harmonies
        • Themes
        • Textures
      • Wagner
      • Brahms
      • Began to use a lot of chromatic notes
        • Pieces began to lose the character of the main key
        • Atonal=The music doesn't have a particular key
      • Old structures were abandoned because they relied on contrasting keys.
        • They were even abandoning old structures. Or using them in new ways
    • Impressionism
      • Music/art that describes a feeling or an experience
      • Ravel
      • Debussy
        • Wrote pieces using the whole tone scale
          • Sounds hazy and dreamy
      • Composers wrote music using recognisable chords and harmonies. To 'paint' a musical picture
      • They cause chords for colour. Rather than following the rules other composers had made
      • Klangfarbenmelodie - literally means tone, colour melody
    • Expressionism
      • Strongest in Germany at the end of WW1.
      • There was a strong feeling of disillusionment and discontent regarding living conditions and restrictions
      • It was used to express strong emotion
      • Can make people feel uncomfortable or harder to digest
    • Key features of Expressionism
      • Atonal
      • Each piece expresses an intense emotion
      • Full pitch range of instruments to explore tone colours of the different registers
      • Timbre is as important as melody
      • Extreme dynamics
      • Pieces tend to be short
    • Schoenberg
      • He wrote in a romantic style
      • He was Jewish and left Germany in 1933
      • He wrote atonal music after a traumatic experience
      • He expressed his intense emotions through his music
    • Five Orchestral Pieces
      • Schoenberg uses pitches for effect rather than relationships
      • The music expressed more than words could
      • Titles were not added to the piece until 13 years after it had been composed
    • Hexachord
      • Groups of 6 notes played together
      • Used to form short melodic ideas. Played one after the other
      • Schoenberg and Bach created hexachords using their names.
      • Schoenberg used a certain way of creating his hexachords. STS(T+S)S
    • How hexachords are used
      • Vericalisation
      • Chords. Different spacings can be experimented with
      • Chord notes could be spread across different instruments
      • Used on the melodic line
      • Melodic line can also be spread across different instruments
    • The compliment
      • There are 12 semitones in an octave
      • 6 of them are used to create a hexachord.
        • The other 6 can be used to create the compliment
    • Principal and secondary voice
      • Used to show who has the most important line and the 2nd most important line
      • For example: Principal voice Bar 10 Clarinets 1+2
    • Use of the Orchestra
      • Peripetie was written for a large orchestra. To produce...
        • Texture
        • Dynamics
        • Timbre
      • Quadruple woodwind
      • 3 flutes and piccolo
      • 3 bassoons and contrabassoon
      • 3 oboes and cor anglais
      • Large brass section, with and without mutes
      • A large percussion section
        • Cymbals
        • Timpani
        • Xylophone
      • And of course strings
    • Important features
      • Parts are very challenging to play
      • Lots of wide leaps
      • No conventional structure.
        • Contrasting textures and tempo
      • Melodic fragments
      • Atonal
      • Hexachords and compliment
      • The melody is passed around different instruments
      • Made of 5 sections
      • Peripetie is greek for sudden changes

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