Research Methods

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  • Sampling Methods
    • Opportunity Sampling
      • Unrepresentative samples can be biased. Only a subgroup of the population.
      • Convenient and ethical. There is a wide variety of participants.
      • This is where the experimenters select participants available at the time
    • Stratified Sampling
      • Time consuming and needs to have a large sample size
      • This is where the experimenter divides the population into subcategories. Participants are randomly selected from the subgroups.
      • It is more likely to be more representative because there is a proportional and randomly selected representation of subgroups.
    • Random Sampling
      • Can be time consuming and too small of a sample can lead to bias.
      • Provides good chances of representative sampling- everyone has an equal chance of being selected
      • This can be done by pulling names out of a hat or asking people in the street
    • Volunteer Sampling
      • This is when a researcher will ask for volunteer. For example, putting an ad in the newspaper or advert
      • Quick and convenient. Consent has already been given
      • Unrepresentative as volunteers are different to typical members of the population
    • Systematic Sampling
      • Unbiased
      • Obtain a sample by selecting every nth person. Interval is consistent
      • Not truly unbiased unless selecting a number using a random method


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