Russia revision: The Civil War - State Capitalism and War Communism

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  • Russia revision: The Civil War - state capitalism and war communism
    • The Civil War
      • 1918-1921
      • The Reds
        • had control of the railways and the cities
          • production of resources/ weapons
          • This made communication between the various battlefronts much easier. Trotsky was able to move troops and supplies rapidly to areas under attack.
        • had one main aim - to consolidate Bolshevik power
          • good leadership with Trotsky leading the army
        • RUTHLESSNESS
          • Opposition
            • Once the Civil War had started, the Bolsheviks banned the other political parties and arrested their leaders.
            • The Bolsheviks closed down newspapers which opposed them.
            • the CHEKA was created - the Bolshevik Secret Police. The CHEKA hunted down and arrested anyone who was suspected of opposing the Bolsheviks.
          • properghanda
            • The Bolsheviks organised a highly effective propaganda campaign in the areas they controlled
        • main aim was to supply the Red Army with food and supplies
      • THE WHITES
        • Their leaders were experienced military commanders; they controlled huge areas of Russia; they had the Bolsheviks surrounded
        • the White Armies began to face major problems and difficulties in organising their campaigns
        • Foreign intervention
          • the western countries were aiding the whites (to prevent the spread of communism in their own country)
            • Lenin used this against them to claim that they were in the debt to the enemy
      • WAR COMMUNISM
        • REQUISITIONING
          • The Cheka forcefully collected the majority of the peasants grain and supplies
          • some peasants would hide and hoard their grain while others would attempt and fail to refuse the requisitioning squads when they arrived
          • peasents slaughtered cattle and ate as much as they could
            • FAMINE OF 1921
          • worst hit were the kulaks who had more personal wealth than the average peasant
        • DISCIPLINE OF LABOR
          • strikes were forbidden
          • working hours were extended
          • fines were imposed for laziness and absenteeism
          • hard work could be rewarded with ration cards and bonuses
            • rations were awarded on a class basis - the red army got the highest
        • main aim was to supply the Red Army with food and supplies
    • STATE CAPITALISM
      • 1917-1918
      • reinstated capitalism slightly
        • opened private markets for profit
          • peasants could produce and sell surplus grain to the cities
            • food flowed from countryside to cities through NEP/SACKMEN
        • small businesses were allowed to reopen
          • peasants could produce and sell surplus grain to the cities
            • food flowed from countryside to cities through NEP/SACKMEN
        • workers would run their own factories - buy their own resources and give wages via their own budget
          • the workers gave themselves stupidly high wages for the little output being produced
        • the state kept control of heavy industry
          • Little production
      • CAUSED A DIVISION IN THE PARTY
        • not 'true' socialism
      • decree on land 1917, nationalization of banks
      • GOELRO 1920- ELECTRICITY
    • WAR COMMUNISM
      • REQUISITIONING
        • The Cheka forcefully collected the majority of the peasants grain and supplies
        • some peasants would hide and hoard their grain while others would attempt and fail to refuse the requisitioning squads when they arrived
        • peasents slaughtered cattle and ate as much as they could
          • FAMINE OF 1921
        • worst hit were the kulaks who had more personal wealth than the average peasant
      • DISCIPLINE OF LABOR
        • strikes were forbidden
        • working hours were extended
        • fines were imposed for laziness and absenteeism
        • hard work could be rewarded with ration cards and bonuses
          • rations were awarded on a class basis - the red army got the highest
    • CONDITIONS DURING THE CIVIL WAR
      • Industrial production fell rapidly
        • raw materials were in short supply
      • workers were taken to join the red army
        • The Reds
          • had control of the railways and the cities
            • production of resources/ weapons
            • This made communication between the various battlefronts much easier. Trotsky was able to move troops and supplies rapidly to areas under attack.
          • had one main aim - to consolidate Bolshevik power
            • good leadership with Trotsky leading the army
          • RUTHLESSNESS
            • Opposition
              • Once the Civil War had started, the Bolsheviks banned the other political parties and arrested their leaders.
              • The Bolsheviks closed down newspapers which opposed them.
              • the CHEKA was created - the Bolshevik Secret Police. The CHEKA hunted down and arrested anyone who was suspected of opposing the Bolsheviks.
            • properghanda
              • The Bolsheviks organised a highly effective propaganda campaign in the areas they controlled
      • rampant inflation
        • since money was worthless, peasants reverted back to substance farming - catering just for their needs
      • urban dwellers experienced an extreme shortage of food, fuel and basic necessities
        • some had to ***** their own house to heat themselves in the winter

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