Unit 1B - River Landforms

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  • River Landforms
    • Meanders
      • The current is faster on the outside of the bend because the river channel is deeper
        • So more erosion takes place on the outside bend forming river cliffs
          • The current is slower on the inside of the bend because the river channel is shallower
            • So eroded material is deposited on the inside of a bend, forming slip off slopes
    • Ox Bow Lakes
      • Erosion causes the outside bends to get smaller
        • Until there is only a small bit of land left
          • The river breaks through this land, usually during a flood
            • The river flows through the shortest course
              • Deposition eventually cuts off the meander
                • forming an ox bow lake
    • Waterfalls
      • Waterfalls from when a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of soft rock
        • The softer rock is eroded more than the hard rock creating a step
          • As water goes over the step it erodes more and more of the softer rock
            • A steep drop is eventually created
              • The hard rock is eventually undercut by erosion. It becomes unsupported and collapses
                • The collapsed rocks are swirled around at the foot of a waterfall where they erode the softer rock by abrasion. This creates a plunge pool
                  • Overtime, more undercutting happens causing more collapsing and this causes the waterfall to retreat leaving behind a steep sided gorge
    • Flood plains

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