river landscape

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  • Created by: faz.momin
  • Created on: 30-05-16 15:07
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  • River Landscape
    • 2.1 river processes produce distinction landforms
      • Drainage basin in terms of watershed, confluence, tributary, source and mouth.
      • Mass movement
        • Slumping: large amount of land moving down a slope, mainly common in clay river banks. This is also due to gravity.
        • Soil creep: This process is very slow and it is hard to see and notice. it is a downhill movement of soil. the water in the soil brings down the slope by gravity.
    • 2.2 Flooding and flood prevention
      • Physical causes of river flooding
        • Nearly all the land in Bangladesh is only a few meters above sea level. it is also very flat
        • The monsoon climate means that around 940mm of rainwater falls between the months June and August.
        • The main rivers in Bangladesh have their sources in the Himalayas, melting snow can increase the volume of water in the river downstream.
      • Human causes of river flooding
        • Deforestation in the Himalayas  increases the amount of  water in the river and this also means rainwater reaches reaches the river quickly.
        • There are now many buildings on the flood plains, meaning more impermeable surfaces
        • Bangladesh is a poor country, this means that not much money can be invested in flood protection.
      • Reducing impacts of flooding
        • Education: this keeps people  up to date with strategies and emergency plans.
        • Planning: areas  at risk  from flooding  are used  for parks and leisure activities, to reduce the impact of flooding, this land  is called land use zone, e.g Nome, Alaska
        • Predictions:  environmental agency (EA) and the US federal emergency management  agency (FEMA) monitor rivers, they use this information to:
      • Prevention in homes to reduce damage
        • Install heating on upper floors
        • use synthetic materials for windows
        • use ceramic tiles instead of carpets
        • Rise the height of electrical sockets, on wall.
    • 2.3 River Management
      • River Nene
        • In 2002, 4m height walls were installed. this protected the local housing and the railway
        • In 2003, the warning system was upgraded. this was to give residents a least 2 hours notice to evacuate
        • In 2007, a wash-land was created in Upton. this was to hold water upstream and reduce risk of flooding in Northampton.
  • Source: the point at which a river starts. This is usually high in the hills in v shaped valley.
    • Tributary: is a stream or river which into a mainstream,(parent ) river and which does not flow directly into a sea.
      • confluence: is the meeting of two or more bodies of. it usually refers to the point where a tributary joins a  major river, mainstream.
        • Watershed: this line seperates the drainage basin. It runs along a geographical barrier between drainage basins such as a hill or a mountain
          • Mouth: The point at which a river ends. this is right out on the coast. At this point the river is slow flowing wide.
  • Untitled
  • Hard engineering
    • Embankment
      • Advantages : limitations  of flooding. The hard engineering
      • Disadvantage:  concrete embankments are ugly and soil view and embankments are often not high enoigh
    • Floodwall
      • Advantage:  can be used in areas where space is limited.
      • Disadvantage:  they have to assembled very well so water doesn't get through
  • Soft engineering
    • Washland
      • Advantages: very cost effective as nothing is built. Also provides natural wetlands for birds and plants.
      • Disadvantages: Large areas are taken over and cannot be built on productive land, can be turned into Marshland.
    • Floodplain zoning
      • advantages; very cheap way of reducing the risk of damaging property.
      • Disadvantages: There can be resistance to resisting developments in areas where there is storage of housing.

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