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  • Respiration
    • Carbohydrates
      • They are polymers.
        • Made from smaller carbohydrates such as sugars.
      • Starch is an example of one.
        • Starch is synthesised from glucose monomers.
          • Plants convert glucose into starch.
        • It is a chemical store.
      • Carbohydrase enzymes break down carbohydrate.
    • Proteins
      • Proteins are polymers.
      • Formed from amino acids.
        • 20 different types.
      • The order in which amino acids are joined determines the protein.
      • Protease enzymes break down proteins to amino acids.
    • Lipids
      • Fats and oils.
      • Good energy store.
      • Some animals use them for insulation.
      • Synthesised from 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.
      • Lipase enzymes break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • With oxygen.
      • ATP is used to:
        • Synthesise larger molecules.
        • Movement
        • Staying warm.
      • Glucose reacts with oxygen.
      • Energy comes from stores in food.
      • Respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
      • Respiration is an exothermic reaction.
        • Energy is transferred to the surrounding by heat.
      • The number of mitochondria in cells shows how active it is.
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • No Oxygen.
      • Glucose is not broken down, lactic acid is produced.
      • Produces less ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
      • Lactic acid causes cramps.
      • Plants takes place in plants when there is no oxygen.
        • Produces ethanol and carbon dioxide.


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