Respiration

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  • Created on: 15-05-18 17:31
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  • Respiration B9
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • Need for Respiration to supply all processes in your body
        • The opposite in which larger molecules are broken down into to smaller molecules though the process of digestion
        • In plants energy is needed to move nitrate ions from the soil into the root hair cells by active transport (against the concentration gradient)
        • build up of large molecules from small ones to make new cell material (called a synthesis reaction)
        • In animals this energy is used for muscle contraction whereas in birds and mammals this energy is used to help maintain a constant body temperature
      • Is enzyme Controlled
      • Glucose and Oxygen react together to provide energy for the body and have the waste products of water and carbon dioxide
      • Aerobic because it uses oxygen
      • An exothermic reaction
      • Can be summarised as: Glucose + Oxygen =>  Carbon dioxide + Water (energy transferred to the surroundings)6O2+C6 H12 06 =>  6 CO2 + 6H20
      • Boys need more energy therefore respire more due to girls being smaller and having less muscles then boy and more more muscles means their are more mitochondria which need to be fueled with energy
        • Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles which have folded inner membranes that provide large surface area for enzymes within the mitochondria.
        • Mitochondria are found in plants,animals, algal and fungal cells
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Why this occours
        • Muscle fatigue
          • vigorous exercise can make your muscles fatigued causing muscle contraction to be less effective
          • caused by the build lactic acid -  this build up also causes an oxygen debt
            • Oxygen Debt
              • If you are unfit you will run out of oxygen going into oxygen debt much sooner.
              • If you are fit then you are able to maintain a good oxygen supply during exercise routine
              • If you have been exercising toward the you'll start to puff and pant
                • This is because lactic acid needs to be broken down into carbon dioxide and water to exit the body.
                  • This can only be broken down by oxygen so therefore you puff and pant to gain the oxygen needed
                    • The longer you puff and pant the larger your oxygen debt is
              • Payment of oxygen debt
                • lactic acid +oxygen => carbon dioxide +water
        • Oxygen Debt
          • If you are unfit you will run out of oxygen going into oxygen debt much sooner.
          • If you are fit then you are able to maintain a good oxygen supply during exercise routine
          • If you have been exercising toward the you'll start to puff and pant
            • This is because lactic acid needs to be broken down into carbon dioxide and water to exit the body.
              • This can only be broken down by oxygen so therefore you puff and pant to gain the oxygen needed
                • The longer you puff and pant the larger your oxygen debt is
          • Payment of oxygen debt
            • lactic acid +oxygen => carbon dioxide +water
      • glucose => Lactic acid (energy transferred to the environment) product in animal cells
      • Not as effective as aerobic respiration because glucose isn't fully broken so less energy is transferred
      • Plants and microorganisms can also respire this way
        • Plants don't produce lactic acid like humans
          • They produce carbon dioxide and ethanol - plants and yeast
            • glucose => ethanol + carbon dioxide (energy transferred to the surroundings)
          • Some microorganisms produce lactic acid (e.g. bacteria used to make yogurt)
            • Process of Fermentation
              • They produce carbon dioxide and ethanol - plants and yeast
                • glucose => ethanol + carbon dioxide (energy transferred to the surroundings)
              • Important economic process used world wide to make alcoholic drinks and bread
    • Response to Exercise
      • Body Responding to Exercise
        • Muscles made to contract harder and faster during exercise and as a result more Oxygen and glucose is needed; more respiration is needed
        • Heart rate increases and arteries that supply blood to your muscle widen. This increases the rate of cellular respiration as it increases the flow of oxygen and glucose and the speed at which carbon-dioxide leaves
        • You breathe more deeply allowing more oxygen to enter the lungs and the red blood cells to faster pick up the oxygen as l as letting the carbon dioxide to leave faster
        • Glycogen stores in the muscle are converted back to glucose to increase its supply
    • The liver
      • Reddish-brown organ which can regenerate itself
      • The converted glucose in the form of glycogen is stored here
        • Glycogenesis is the insulin hormone which converts glucose into glycogen and glucagon converts it back when the glucose is needed
      • Metabolic Functions
        • Detoxifying poisonous substances such as ethanol found in alcoholic beverages
        • Breaking down products in the blood so they can be processed by the kidney and made to urine
        • Breaking down old and worn out blood cells then storing the irons which can be later used for the synthesis of new blood cells
      • Lactic Acid
        • Liver is also in charge of removing the lactic acid from the body
        • Lactic acid is the incomplete broken down form of glucose presented as C3H6O3 which is half of the glucose representation of C6H12O6
        • This is then converted to glucose and broken down by oxygen and the process of respiration. Once all of the lactic acid is fully broken down into carbon dioxide and water then the oxygen debt is paid
        • Blood flowing through the muscle takes the lactic acid to the liver where it can be either stored in the form of glycogen after being converted from glucose or is broken down by repiration
    • Metabolism
      • Metabolism of an organism sums up all the reactions that take place in the cell.
      • Metabolic Reactions
        • Glucose being converted to starch, glycogen, cellulose
        • The formation of lipid molecules from the three fatty acids and glycerol molecules
        • The use of nitrate ions and glucose to form amino acids which are then used to build proteins
        • reaction of photosynthesis and respiration
        • The breakdown of excess proteins in the liver which are the converted to urea for excreted in the urine by the kidneys
      • The energy transferred by respiration in cells is used by the organism for the continual enzyme controlled processes of metabolism that synthesise molecules
    • Body Movement
      • This is an important process because parts of your body such the digestive system require muscle movement as well as the heart which is a muscle
      • Muscles tissue contract when supplied with energy and muscles need energy to move against gravity
        • Glucose is used in aerobic respiration to transfer energy required to make your muscles contract
      • Muscles also store glucose as the carbohydrate glycogen. This is rapidly converted to glucose during exercise

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