Research methods

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  • Created by: CWylie
  • Created on: 27-11-14 16:43
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  • Research Methods
    • Experimental Method
      • Investigation used to demonstrate relationship between cause and effect
        • Factors are manipulated
          • Independent Variable
            • The factor that is changed in the experiment
          • Dependent Variable
            • The observed and measured factor
            • Influenced by the IV
          • Extraneous Variable
            • A variable other than the ones being tested
            • If not controlled it can change the outcome; confounding variable
      • Placebo
        • A fake drug that has no known effects
      • Experiments
        • Labratory
          • High control over variables
          • Stroop 1935
            • 'Stroop effect'
              • The length of time it takes to name color names, compared to colour names in the colour, eg. blue, written in blue compared to blue writen in black
          • Doesn't have to take place in a Labratory
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • They're easy to replicate because its so controlled
              • Its easier to control the confounding variables
              • Measuring and recording equipment can be used more in the controlled situation
            • Disadvantages
              • Loss of validity, because of high control
              • Demand characteristics
            • Ethical issues
              • Consent
              • use of animals
        • Field Experiments
          • carried out in natural environment
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • Improved ecological validity
                • non-artificial
              • Reduction of demand characteristics
            • Disadvantages
              • Hard to establish control
              • Cost and time
            • Ethical isssues
              • Consent
              • Confidentiality
              • Use of aimals
        • Natural
          • The researcher doesn't directly control the IV
          • Berkowitz 1970
            • Witnessing violence makes people more violent
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • Reduction of demand characteristics
              • Lack of direct intervention
            • Disadvantages
              • Loss of control
              • what the researches wants to see may not happen
            • Ethical issues
              • Consent
              • Confidentiality
    • Experimental Design
      • AIm
        • Provide an overall plan for the experiment
        • Ensure appropriate and precise measures are made
        • Enable all the data collected to be alayzed correctly
        • Eliminate bias
        • Ensure high control
      • Independent groups design
        • involves using different participants in each condition
        • Evaluation
          • Advantages
            • No order effects
      • Repeated measure design
        • Involves every participant being exposed to every condition
        • Counterbalancing
          • equal number of participants taking part in different orders
        • Randomisation
          • randomly determining the presentation order of conditions, eg tossing a coin
        • Evaluation
          • Advantage
            • Individual differences are no longer a confounding variable
            • Fewer participants needed
          • Disadvantages
            • Range of potential is  smaller
            • Can have order effects
      • Mathced pairs design
        • Evaluation
          • Advantages
            • Individual differences removed
            • No order effects
          • Disadvantages
            • Hard and time consuming
        • matching each participants to each other in the conditions
    • Hypothesis
      • a statement that is testable
      • Null hypothesis
        • Predicts experiment results can be explained by chance variation not manipulation of the IV
      • Alternative
        • predicts something other than chance variation has played a part in obtaining results
      • Directional and non directional
        • directional predicts the direction of the results expected
        • Non directional does not predict the expected direction of outcome
    • Pilot Studies
      • Small scale trials of the official experiment
      • Test for instructions, measuring instruments, measurements etc
  • Evaluation
    • Experimental Method
      • Investigation used to demonstrate relationship between cause and effect
        • Factors are manipulated
          • Independent Variable
            • The factor that is changed in the experiment
          • Dependent Variable
            • The observed and measured factor
            • Influenced by the IV
          • Extraneous Variable
            • A variable other than the ones being tested
            • If not controlled it can change the outcome; confounding variable
      • Placebo
        • A fake drug that has no known effects
      • Experiments
        • Labratory
          • High control over variables
          • Stroop 1935
            • 'Stroop effect'
              • The length of time it takes to name color names, compared to colour names in the colour, eg. blue, written in blue compared to blue writen in black
          • Doesn't have to take place in a Labratory
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • They're easy to replicate because its so controlled
              • Its easier to control the confounding variables
              • Measuring and recording equipment can be used more in the controlled situation
            • Disadvantages
              • Loss of validity, because of high control
              • Demand characteristics
            • Ethical issues
              • Consent
              • use of animals
        • Field Experiments
          • carried out in natural environment
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • Improved ecological validity
                • non-artificial
              • Reduction of demand characteristics
            • Disadvantages
              • Hard to establish control
              • Cost and time
            • Ethical isssues
              • Consent
              • Confidentiality
              • Use of aimals
        • Natural
          • The researcher doesn't directly control the IV
          • Berkowitz 1970
            • Witnessing violence makes people more violent
          • Evaluation
            • Advantages
              • Reduction of demand characteristics
              • Lack of direct intervention
            • Disadvantages
              • Loss of control
              • what the researches wants to see may not happen
            • Ethical issues
              • Consent
              • Confidentiality
    • Advantages
      • The confounding variables are iliminated
        • Constant Variables
      • They do not have to wait for it to naturally occur
    • Disadvantages
      • Participants know they are taking part and so it may affect the results as they may act differently
      • It can be inappropriate or unethical

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