Research Methods

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  • Research methods
    • Experiments and Hypothesis: Experiment- IV ---> DV. Hypothesis, Directional: predicting one condition better than other, Non direction predicted, Hypotheses must be operationalised.
    • Experimental design: repeated measures: order effects (e.g practice effect) participants may guess purpose of experiment, independent groups: no control of participant variables; twice as many participants required, Matched pairs: time-consuiming and only partially effective at controlling participant variables, Counterbalancing to control for order effects.
    • Lab, Field and natural experiments: controlled environment often lacks mudane realism, Field: natural environment but IV controlled by experimenter, control more diffucult, ethical issues, Natural: IV varies naturally, doesnt show cause and effect because participants not randomly allocated to conditions, Extraneous variables can be controlled in all three.
    • Observation: naturalistic: behaviour not manipualted, controlled: some variables can be controlled, content analysis: indirect observation of behaviour. Observational design: structured and unstructured, behavioural categories (operationalisation) sampling(event and time), participant and non participant, overt and covert.
    • External validity: high for naturalistic observation but population validity may be a problem, internal validity: depends whether behavioural vategories are appropriate, reliability: established with inter-observer reliaility, improves with training of observers, ethical issues: informed consent, privacy and confidentiality.
    • Case studies: study of a single person, institution or event. Rich data: possible unusual insights into rare cases, Generalisation is a problem; research bias; ethical issues such as privacy and confidentiality.
  • Experiments and Hypothesis: Experiment- IV ---> DV. Hypothesis, Directional: predicting one condition better than other, Non direction predicted, Hypotheses must be operationalised.

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