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  • research methods
    • hypothesis
      • a precise and testable statement that suggests what the research result will be.
      • it must: be a statement, include all conditions of the IV and include an operationalise DV.
      • operationalise- make it clear and precise what is being measured. It specifically states whats being measured and usually gives numerical data
      • different types of hypothesis
        • experimental (H1)-will have an effect/will increase or decrease
        • null (H0)-will have no effect
        • directional (one-tailed) - will increase/decrease
        • non-directional (two-tailed) - will have an effect
    • laboratory and field experiments
      • lab- controlled setting, have high internal validity as the variables are highly controlled but has low ecological validity as pps are aware they're being studied and tasks are likely artifical.
        • strengths: high internal validity
        • limitations; PPS usually aware, the IV or DV operationalised in way that lacks mundane realism, low ecological validity
      • field- more natural environment, the IV is still deliberately manipulated by the researcher and the DV is still measured by the researcher.
        • strengths: PPS usually unaware so no demand characteristics, more natural environment so PPS more relaxed.
        • limitations: IV may lack mundane realism, difficult to control extraneous variables, ethical issues
    • pilot study
      • a small scale trial run of a research design before the real thing.
      • the see if certain aspects do or don't work, if PPS don't understand, guess aim or get bored
    • experimental design
      • independent groups-one group goes condition A and a second group do condition B
      • repeated measures- the same participants do all conditions of the experiment
        • order effects-an extraneous variable arising from the order the different conditions are presented
          • counterbalancing- divide PPS into two groups- AB/BA or AB/BA
      • matched pairs- two groups but they are related by being paired by relevant participant variables


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