research methods

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  • Created by: elin_490
  • Created on: 18-10-15 11:20
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  • research methods
    • experiment
      • IV
        • variable that changes
      • DV
        • variable that is measured
    • Hypothysis
      • Directional
        • Preicts the kind of difference and the direction
      • null
        • assumes there is no relationship
      • non-Directional
        • Proposes a difference but doesnt specifyt he direction
    • Experimental Design
      • Independant groups
        • Ever p only experience one level of the IV
          • Advantage    - less chance of demand characteristics
          • Disadvantage- more Ps needed          -Individual differences could be problematic
      • Repeater measures
        • Every P experiences every level of the IV
          • Advantage    -less Ps needed         -Individual differences reduced
          • Disadvantage- Demand characteristic  -order effects may occur
      • matched pairs
        • Ps are matched (gender, age) the every P experiences one level of the IV
          • Advantage- individual difference minimised     -less chance of demand characteristics
          • Disadvantag- hard and time consuming to match pairs -more Ps needed
    • Validity
      • Legitimacy of the study
      • Internal
        • extraneous variables
          • variable that may affect the DV but does not vary systematically with it (bot groups)
        • Confounding variable
          • Untitledvariable that had affected the DV and does vary systematically with it (one group)
      • external
        • mundane realism
          • Untitledhow realistic the research environment is
        • generalisability
          • extent to which results can be tranffered to other people, setting and time periods
            • Ecological validity
              • I have generalisable the results are to real life
            • population validity
              • how generalisable the results are to other people
            • Historical Validity
              • how generalisable the results are to different time periods
    • Reliability
      • The consistancy of research
      • internal
        • Ovations and interviews- may be and issue with the extent to which two observers agree when studying the same behaviour
          • Inter observer/inter rater- Extent to which they agree can be calculated by loking at the correlation between their scores, can be improved by training
        • Psychological test- split half method- compares answeres from two halves of the test
      • external
        • results may not be consistant over time
          • test retest method- same person tested over a period of time
    • Quasi experiments
      • researcher doesnt manipulate the IV directly as it would occur anyway
      • natural
        • IV is occurring naturally
      • studuesd difference
        • I is something that is a pre-existing condition
    • type of data
      • secondary- from different study
        • Advantges-cheaper  -easier
        • disadvanges- dta may not fit the needs of the study  -may be only mathod available
      • primary-firsthand
        • Advantage- likely to be up to date  -researcher had control
        • disadvantage-lengthy and expensive
      • quantitive-numbers and quantites
        • Advantage-easy to analyse  -reliable
        • disadtantage- oversimplifies human experience
      • qualitative-words, cant be quantified
        • disadvantage- investigator bias  -difficult to detect patterns and trends
        • advantage- reveals meaning  -detailed
    • location
      • Lab
        • room set up to allow research
          • Disadvantage- no natural -may not be practical
          • Advantage- more control  -allows specialist equiptment
      • Field
        • more natural setting
          • Disadvantage- hard to control  -hard to use specialist equiptment
          • Advantage- more natural  -bigger range of things you can do
      • online
        • Avantage- easy large group  -cheap
        • disvantage- limited things to do  -easy to lie  -ethics difficult to deal with

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