Religious Groups in Palestine

New Testament Studies 

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  • Religious Groups in Palestine
    • Pharisees
      • Ideas and beliefs
        • Not involved in the Temple
          • They were NOT priests
        • Meaning "Separated Ones"
        • Theory of the Oral Law (Talmud)
        • fed into the Rabbinic movement after the Jewish revolt of AD66-70 and the later Destruction of the Temple
      • Conflict with Jesus
        • The Law
          • Sabbath
            • Mark's Gospel
              • Mark 2
                • Picking Corn
                  • Jesus says that in the OT, King David ate bread that was consecrated for God because of his human needs
                    • rules should never be important than human needs
                      • "For the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath"
                        • the Sabbath is for our wellbeing and is a blessing from God
              • Mark 3
                • Healing a man at the Temple
                  • Jesus shows compassion and is angry with the Pharisees who are watching him to make sure he will not break  the Sabbath by healing the man (healing = work)
                    • pharisees begin plotting against him
            • John's Gospel
              • John 5
                • Healing at the Pool
                  • Jesus Heals on the Sabbath
                    • Pharisees focus on the breaking of the law, rather than the healing
                  • "My father is always at his work to this very day, and I too am working"
                    • Cause of conflict?
                      • Breaks the law
                      • Blasphemes
            • Day of rest commanded in Exodus 20:8-11
            • The Pharisees had many TRADITIONS of what could be done on a Sabbath and what could not be done on a Sabbath
              • These traditions are NOT included in the Torah, they are interpretations
          • The Law was important to the Pharisees because they believed if everyone kept it for just one day, the God would forgive the Jewish nation and would bring and end to Roman Oppression
    • Saducees
      • Ideas and beliefs
        • Didn't believe in life after death (which is why they are sad you see)
        • Came from the Levite line and Zadok the Priest
          • Zadokite Temple Priesthood
          • identified with Priesthood in the Temple
        • United in thought with Hellenism
          • United alongside the ruling Hellenised aristocracy
        • Identified with Roman rulers
          • Power
          • Not liked (at all)
            • had little in common with them
      • Conflict with Jesus
        • The Temple
          • Jesus said  he would destroy the Temple and rebuild it again in 3 days
            • Jesus poses a threat to not only the Jewish religion but also to the Sadducee's' livelihood
          • The Temple offered freedom from Rome and symbolised freedom
          • John 2
    • Essenes
      • Ideas and beliefs
        • Identified with Maccabees
        • Believed to have written the Dead Sea Scrolls
        • Believed the Spirits of Truth and Falsehoods guided the community
        • Very Strict
        • Looked for the Messiah
          • Believed he would come to punish the Evil
        • John the Baptist is believed to be an Essene
        • Opposition to the Temple after 152 BC
      • Interaction with Jesus
        • The Essenes lived apart from the community and awaited a Messiah who would punish the wicked
        • Jesus worked with outcasts who the Essenes would consider to be wicked
          • He defies their expectations
    • Zealots
      • Ideas and beliefs
        • Political Movement which sought to expel the Roman Empire from the Holy Land
        • Josephus stated there were 3 Jewish Sects, this was the fourth
        • Meaning one who is zealous on behalf of God
        • Judas was famously a Zealot
      • Conflict with Jesus
        • The Zealots awaited a warrior Messiah who would overthrow the Romans and reinstate the nation of Israel
          • Jesus was peaceful and refused violence against the Romans
    • Sanhedrin
      • Conflict with Jesus
        • Planned his death
        • put him on trial and took him to Pilate
      • Ideas and beliefs
        • Jewish ruling council
        • The high Priests
        • Pax Romana
          • Worked to satisfy Romans
    • Josephus described 3 Jewish sects: Pharisees, Saducees and the Essenes
      • Many people did not belong to a particular group
      • He overly simplified the groups in order to explain them to the Romans

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