Rates of Chemical Reactions

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  • Rates of Chemical Reactions
    • Temperature
      • Molecules must collide with activation energy.
      • Higher temperatures mean more particles have enough energy to react.
      • Higher temperatures mean particles move faster. Hence there are more collisions.
    • Pressure
      • Higher pressure means the same number of particles in a smaller volume.
      • Increasing pressure increases the chance of more frequent collisions.
      • Increasing pressure increases the collisions with enough energy to react.
    • Concentration
      • Higher concentration means more particles in the same volume.
      • Increasing the concentration increases the chance of more frequent collisions.
      • Increasing the concentration increases the collisions with enough energy to react.
    • Surface Area
      • Increasing surface area increases the chance of more frequent collisions.
      • Increasing  surface area increases the collisions with enough energy to react.
    • Addition of a Catalyst
      • A catalyst increases the rate of reaction without being used in the reaction.
      • Catalysts lower the activation energies for reactions.
    • Orientation
      • If the orientation of the particles is not correct no reaction will occur.
      • Particles must collide head on in order to overcome the activation energy.
    • Calculating Rates of Reactions
      • To calculate rate changes in physical quantities must be measured.
        • Change in mass
        • Gas volume
        • Concentration
        • Other: colour, conductivity, pressure
      • The physical changes can be drawn on a graph.
      • To find the rate draw a tangent to the curve and calculate its gradient.

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