Kinetics - 2

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 09-05-14 12:05
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  • Kinetics
    • Factors which influence the rate of a chemical reation
      • Temperature
        • An increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction
          • There are more successful collisions
            • These collisions are of higher energy, and therefore it is more likely E > Ea
      • Concentration
        • At higher concentrations, the reaction rate is increased
          • There are more particles in the same amount of space
            • Particles are more likely to collide
      • Pressure
        • At higher pressures, the reaction rate increases
          • Particles become closer together
            • Frequency of collisions is increased
            • Same amount of particles in a smaller space
      • Surface area
        • The smaller the pieces of a solid, the larger the surface area
          • More particles come into contact with the reactant
            • More collisions and a faster rate of reaction
      • Catalysts
        • Work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, by providing an alternative pathway
          • If the activation energy is lower, more particles will have enough energy to react
    • Collision theory: in order for a reaction to take place...
      • Particles must collide
      • Particles must collide with sufficient energy
    • Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
      • Particles have a distribution of energies
        • Some with high energy
        • Some with low energy
      • Factors can affect this distribution
        • Increased temperature
          • More particles have higher energy
            • More particles with energy above the activation energy, so the reaction will occur faster
        • Decrease in concentration
          • Fewer particles present in the same area
            • Decrease in successful collisions
          • Energies of particles decrease
            • Fewer particles with activation energy
    • Activation energy
      • The minimum energy colliding particles must have in order for a reaction to occur
      • The rate of a chemical reaction can be altered if activation energy is lowered


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