Raine et al. (1997)

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  • Raine et al. (1997)
    • Aim
      • The brains of murderers who pleaded insanity were different to non-murderers
      • Hypotheses
        • Dysfunction would be present in:
          • The prefrontal cortex
          • Angular gyrus
          • Amygdala
          • Hippocampus
          • Thalamus
        • There would be no dysfunction in:
          • Caudate
          • Putamen
          • Globus pallidus
          • Midbrain
          • Cerebellum
      • Use PET scanning to check for dysfunction
    • Background
      • Started from the idea that brain damage/ dysfunction may lead to violent behavior
    • Procedure
      • Pps given glucose tracer
        • Performed Continuous Performance Task (CPT)
          • PET scan carried out after 32 minutes
      • Controls
        • Pps allowed to practice CPT 10 before tracer injected
        • None of the pps were on medication 2 weeks prior to theexperiment
    • Sample
      • 82 people
        • 41 murders who pleaded NGRI
          • 39 males, 2 females
          • 3 had a history of psychoactive drug abuse
          • 2 had affective disorders
          • 23 had head injuries or organic brain damage
          • 2 had epilepsy
          • 3 had a history of hyperactivity and learning disability
          • 6 had schizophrenia
          • 2 had personality disorders
          • Kept of medication 2 weeks before
        • 41 control pps
          • Matched in gender and age
          • 6 had schizophrenia to match the 6 in the murderer group
          • Not on medication
    • Results
      • The NGRI's showed less activity in the frontal lobe especially the prefrontal lobe
      • Also less activity in the parietal lobe but more in the occipital lobe
      • Also less activity in the Corpus callosum ( the nerve bridge)
      • An in balance of activity in the limbic system
      • Less activity on the left than on the right in the amygdala
    • Conclusions
      • NGRI's have lower glucose metabolism in the:
        • Prefrontal cortex
        • Corpus callosum
        • Parietal  cortex
      • Abnormal activity between the different hemispheres of the:
        • Medial temporal gyrus
        • Hippocaqmpus
        • Thalamus
        • Amygdala

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