PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SUMMARISED

  • Created by: 12listers
  • Created on: 16-05-19 20:54
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  • PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
    • Definitions of abnormality
      • Statistical infrequency
        • Most obvious way to define abnormality
        • Descriptive statistics, representing a typical value
        • If it can find what behaviours are most common it can help define abnormal behaviours
        • Evaluation: Not all uncommon behaviours are necessarily negative, for example having a higher than average IQ.
          • It can be subjective as its hard to define a cut off point in what is seen as normal or abnormal
      • Failure to function adequately
        • ROSENHAM AND SELIGMAN 1989
          • Maladaptive and harmful behaviours (e.g. taking drugs and alcohol), unconventional behaviour (going against what is percieved as normal) and observer discomfort such as seeing homeless people
        • Evaluation: It is possible to function adequately but in fact be "abnormal" on the inside
      • Deviation for social norms
        • Norms which are created by a group of people in society
        • Standards of acceptable behaviours which are viewed as unwritten rules of society
          • People who act differently to these are seen to be behaving abnormally.
      • Deviation from ideal mental health
        • Self attitudes, Personal growth and self actualisation, Autonomy (control), Intergration and Accurate perception of reality
        • Evaluation: Unrealistic criteria
    • Behavioural approach: Phobias
      • Mowrers Two Process Model
        • Suggests that all phobias are learned, emphasising the importance of environment and proposes that some learning is maladaptive which leads to abnormal behaviour.
        • STEP 1: INITIATION
          • Suggests that phobias are acquired through classical conditioning, an association between an unconditional stimulus and a neutral stimulus.
          • Example: An unconditioned stimulus ( a bite) naturally produces fear. If a dog bites a person, they will associate the dog with pain and then learn to be fearful of dogs.
        • STEP 2: MAINTENANCE
          • Phobias are maintained through operant conditioning.
          • The likelihood of a behaviour being repeated depends on the consequences, if the outcome is rewarding the behaviour will be repeated, bu avoiding feared objects, fear is reduced which is rewarding
      • Evaluation: DI NARDO 1988- The diathesis stress model. Not everyone who is bitten by a dog will become scared of dogs. This is explained by DSM which proposes some people are already genetically vulnerable for developing mental disorders, it manifests through triggering life events.
      • Evaluation: Supported by SLT/Bandura
    • Behavioural treatments for phobias
      • Flooding: A client is exposed to an extreme form of their threatening situation in a relexed condition until the anxiety is extinguished
        • Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing is taught first
        • Usually last 2-3hours
        • Fear responses have a time limit as adrenaline reduces, a new stimulus-response link can be learned
      • Systematic desensitisation:A client is gradually exposed to their threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety is extinguihsed
        • A reason for phobias may be because a person tends to avoid their feared object so they don't get chance to learn that it is not fearful
        • Aims to introduce the individual to their feared object and relax in its presence.
        • Hierarchy Example: Seeing a spider on the ground, approaching a spider on the ground, Catching the spider, then putting it outside.
      • Evaluation: MCGARTH 1990 reported that 75% of patients responded to SD
        • OHMAN 1975, SD might not actually be that effective in treating phobias with an evolutionary survival component
      • Evaluation: CHOY ET AL reported that flooding is more effective than SD
        • Flooding breaks ethical guideline protection from physical or psychological harm.
    • Cognitive explanations for depression
      • BECKS NEGATIVE TRIAD
        • Negative view of about the world. "Everybody hates me because i'm worthless"
        • Negative view of self "I am worthless"
        • Negative view of future. "I'll never be good at anything"
      • ELLIS' ABC MODEL
        • Activating event, Belief, Consequences.
      • Evaluation
        • HAMMEN AND KRENTZ 1976 found support through research that depression was caused by irrational thinking.
        • Ignores other factors such as genes and hormones that cause depression like low levels of serotonin
        • Useful application, cognitive behavioural therapy.
    • Cognitive treatments for depression
      • Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy ELLIS
        • Added to his ABC model with Disputing Effects of disputing and Feelings/emotions produced.
          • Logical disputing, empirical disputing and pragmatic disputing
        • Thought diaries and homework as part of CBT
      • Evaluation
        • CUIJPERS ET AL 2013 found that out of 75 studies, CBT was more superior than no treatment.
        • CBT is a treatment that works towards curing depression rather than just treating the symptoms
        • ELKIN found CBT ineffective for people with high levels or irrational beliefs
        • Anti-depressant drugs such as SSRIs require less effort from the patient
        • CBT has very little success rate
    • Biological approach to OCD
      • Compulsion- A repetitive rigid behaviour or mental act that a person feels driven to perform to reduce anxiety
      • Obsession- A persistent thought, idea, impulse or image that experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive and causes anxiety
      • COMT Gene- regulates levels of dopamine, high levels of this is linked to OCD
      • SERT Gene- regulates levels of seratonin, low levels of this are linked to OCD
    • Biological treatments
      • SSRI Therapy
        • Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitor
          • These drugs increase levels of seratonin
      • Tricyclics block the transport mechanism of seratonin
      • Evaluation
        • Drug therapy is cheaper and quicker and it requires less effort on the part of the participant
        • Drugs have side effects such as irritability, disturbance to sleep patterns, headaches and loss of appetite

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