Psychology: Memory- The Cognitive Interview

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  • Psychology: Memory- The Cognitive Interview
    • There are 4 stages
      • Stage 1: Report everything
        • Include every single detail of the event, even if it is minor or not directly related to crime. This is intended to improve the detail and accuracy of the memory of the crime
      • Stage 2: Reinstatement of context
        • Include every single detail of the event, even if it is minor or not directly related to crime. This is intended to improve the detail and accuracy of the memory of the crime
      • Stage 3: Change order
        • Reverse the order of what happened. This helps to access more information about the crime stored in memory
      • Stage 4: Change perspective
        • Recall the crime from many different points of view, e.g other witnesses, the person carrying out the crime, the victim. This allows the eyewitness to retrieve more information stored in memory
    • Fisher and Geiselman (1992) developed an interviewing technique (CI) which is based on proven psychological principles concerning effective memory recall
    • This is a police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context in order to increase the accessibility of stored information
    • Evaluation of the Cognitive Interview
      • Milne and Bull (2002): Found that when they used a combination of 'report everything' and 'mental reinstatement', participants recall was significantly higher- however this was done in a Laboratory
      • Mello and Fisher (1996): When CI and normal interview techniques were tested on both older adults (72 years) and younger adults (22 years) memory, CI was better for both- was more significant an advantage for the elderly
      • Kohnken et al (1999): Meta-analysis of 53 studies, found an average of 34 % increase in the amount  of correct information in CI- however most of the sample were University Students

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djbdom

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