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  • Psychodynamic Approach
    • Personality
      • ID ( unconscious)
      • SUPERGO (moral guardian. Developed from society and parental standards of what is appropriate behaviour)
        • EGO (reality principle, conscious rational mind)
      • PRECONSCIOUS - this information is just below the surface but not at the front of our minds but it is accessible
        • UNCONSCIOUS - thoughts feelings and emotions that are difficult to access. Largest part of the mind and can affect behaviour
          • CONSCIOUS - ideas thoughts and feelings we are actively aware of
      • Defence mechanisms
        • Repression - recall of a traumatic event where feelings are unconsciously blocked hiding the painful memory
          • someone is unable to remember the last few moments of a car crash
        • DENIAL - refusal to accept that events are happening or have happened
          • an alcoholic denies they have a drink problem
        • PROJECTION - an individuals own undesirable characteristics of feelings are attributed to others so alleviating others
          • a violent lad shouts "whats your problem" to an innocent stranger
    • Psychosexual development
      • ORAL (birth to 1 year) pleasure gained from sucking and swallowing as the teeth emerge
        • RECEPTIVE - often optimistic, admiring of others and gullible AGGRESSIVE - sarcastic, verbally hostile
      • ANAL (1 to 3 years) pleasure gained from expelling and playing with faeces. During toilet training pleasure gained from holding on to and controlling bowel movements
        • EXPULSIVE - messy, reckless, disorganised. RETENTIVE - obstinate, careful, precise
      • PHALLIC (3 to 5/6 years) the libido becomes focussed on curiosity and pleasure involving opposite sex genitalia
        • If stuck in this developmental stage they may have a personality of self assured, vain, proud and unable to love others
    • Key Issue
        • Recovered during psychoanalysis but found to be false
          • can ruin families, the client holds recovered memories from childhood and are only resurfaced during analysis


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