Gene Mutation and Protein Synthesis Overview

Summary of Protein Synthesis and Gene Mutations

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  • Protein Synthesis
    • Structure of RNA
      • Pentose sugar (ribose); phosphate; nitrogenous bases
      • mRNA - Single strand, AUGC, Straight, Unstable
      • tRNA - single strand, Clover shaped, anti codon, amino acid, AUGC, More stable than mRNA
    • Transcription
      • 1) RNA Polymerase breaks H bonds of DNA, splitting strands
      • 2) Free nucleotides bind to complementary bases
      • 3) RNA polymerase binds nucleotides to form mRNA
      • 4) mRNA leaves via nuclear pore
    • Translation
      • 1) mRNA attaches to small ribosome sub unit
      • 2) Large sub unit closes it in
      • 3) Free tRNA with complementary anti codon moves into ribosome and binds
      • 4) tRNA carries specific amino acid
      • 5) tRNA with next complementary anti codon moves in and binds
      • 6) Amino acids bound by peptide bond and ribosome moves mRNA across
      • 7) First tRNA leaves ribosome without amino acid and process continues until protein built
    • Gene Mutation
      • Base Substitution
        • Nonsense Mutation - forms a stop codon
        • Mis-sense Mutation - different amino acid coded for
        • Silent Mutation - although a base changes, the same amino acid is coded for
      • Base Deletion
        • One base removed and entire code shifts one to the left
      • Causes of Mutation
        • Mutagens
        • Chemicals that alter DNA structure
        • High energy radiation
      • Cell Division
        • Proto-oncogenes
          • Receptor permanently activated, cell division even without growth factor
          • Oncogene may code for growth factor that is produced in excessive amounts
        • Tumor Suppressor Genes
          • Mutates and becomes inactive and unable to maintain normal rates of cell division


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