• Created by: P0larbear
  • Created on: 04-01-21 14:05
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  • Polymers
    • Addition
      • Teflon (PTFE) C2F4
        • Rod-like structure - packs well. Fairly crystalline. high melting point. resistant to chemical attack due to protective F.
        • Uses: non-stick tools, coating vessels to prevent corrosion
      • Polyalkenes
        • PET: Thermoplastics / thermo-softenin. (Melts in high temperatures. Enough energy supplied to overcome intermolecular forces of attraction between long chains)
        • HDPE = high density polyethane.Little branching so more crystalline. packed close so strong vdw forcesso higher melting point and higher density.
          • Uses: milk bottles, bowls, pipes
        • Low density polyethane. Lots of side chains, but molecules close sometimes so a bit crystalline. Largely amorphous so low density and low melting point
          • Uses: plastic bags
    • Condensation
      • Polyesters
        • Terylene
          • Terephthalic acid + ethane-1,2-diol. Water is eliminated
          • -COC6H4COOCH2CH2O-
          • can be broken down by hydrolysis
          • very strong fibre (even wet), elastic, unreactive with acids
        • monomers joined together, small molecule removed, made from diacid and diol
      • Polyamides
        • Polypeptides
          • Peptides can join together in many different ways but always with a peptide link (CONH). If enough are joined it can be a protein chain. Addition/ elimination reaction.
        • Proteins
          • Primary structure
            • Protein chain has around 50-2000 amino acid residues
            • Cysteine: if two end up next to each other due to folding in the peptide chain, they can react to form a sulfur bridge (covalent bond between two sulfur atoms)
            • order of amino acid residues in the protein. Structure of an amino acid looks like: H2N-CH(R)-COOH (N-terminal at left, C-terminal at right).
          • Secondary structure
            • Alpha helix: peptide coiled in spiral. IntRAmolecular bonds between groups four residues apart
            • Beta pleated sheet: quite extended polypeptide chains held by intERmolecular hydrogen bonds
          • peptide link CONH
          • Tertiary structure
            • VAN DER WAAL'S between large hydrocarbon side chains
            • Hydrogen bonds between NH2 and OH side chains
            • Ionic interactions between -NH4+ and -COO- when Hydrogen transfers
            • Sulphur bridges: covalent bonds between cysteine residues
        • Nylon 6
          • Made from 1 monomer (caprolactam, a cyclic amide) and the ring opens OR from 6-aminohexanoic acid
          • Uses: textiles, tire cords, ropes
            • Nylon 6,6
              • Made from 2 monomers with 6C each: hexanedioic acid and hexane-1,6-diamine
          • Thermosoftening: melt in high temperatures
            • Nylon 6,6
              • Made from 2 monomers with 6C each: hexanedioic acid and hexane-1,6-diamine
        • Kevlar
          • Uses: bulletproof vests, boat construction, lightweight skis.
          • COC6H4CONHC6H4NHW
          • Hydrogen bonding and 3D network so very strong.
        • Functional group = CONH. Made from diacid and diamine OR from an amino carboxylic acid in an elimination reaction
    • Adhesives
      • Epoxy resins: thermosetting polymers that are set in one shape due to cross-linking
      • Superglue: almost planar. alternating bond types so delocalisation, so lots of electrons near N and O making CH3 group exposed to nucleophiles (even water vapour). each reaction produces longer nucleophile. Polymerises during setting process.
    • Conducting
      • Ethyne / C2H2(n) has alternating double and single bonds which results in delocalised electrons that are free to conduct electricity
    • DNA
      • Double helix structure. Chains run in opposite directions. Made up of nucleotides with the structure of sugar group, phosphate group, and base where the four bases bond A-T (2 H bonds) and C-G (3 H bonds)
        • -CH2-phosphate group
          • deoxyribose group
            • Base group (A-T, G-C)
      • Replication: DNA molecule unzips (H bonds break) and more nucleotides are connected to the strand to make the daughter DNA. Semi-conservative because half of the molecule is new.


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