Photosynthesis

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  • Photosynthesis
    • Basic equation of photosynthesis
      • 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water Molecules + energy -> 1 Glucose+ 6 Oxygren
    • ATP
      • Produced from the energy released from glucose in respiration
      • Made up of...
        • Adenine
      • Synthesised from...
      • Properties of ATP that makes it good at energy storage
        • Energy released in small managable amounts
        • Small soluble molecule so it can be easily transported
        • Easily broken down, so energy easily released
        • Can transfer energy
        • Can't pass out of the cell
    • Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast
      • Chloroplasts are flattened organelle
      • Features of the chloroplast
        • Double membrane (chloroplast envolope)
        • Thylakoids
          • Stacked up called Grana
            • Grana linked together by lamellae
          • Found on the thylakoid membranes
        • Photosynthetic Pigments
          • Absorb light energy needed fgor photosynthesis
            • Found on the thylakoid membranes
        • Stroma
          • Gel-like substance surrounding thylakoids
        • Carbohydrates created by photosynthes stored in starch grains
    • Stages of Photosynthesis
      • Light-Independant
        • Takes place in stroma
        • Carbon dioxide from the air diffuses into the leaf through the stomata
          • Then diffuses into the stroma of the chloropast
            • The Carbon Dioxide combines with the 5 carbon ribulose bisphosphate using an enzyme
              • This produces two 3 carbon molecules of glycerate-3-phosphate
                • ATP and NADPH from the light dependant reaction activate the GP to make triose phosphate
                  • Produces Hydrogen Ions which are collected by electron carriers NADP to make NADPH
                  • NADP reformed and sent back to the light-depenant
                    • TP converted to useful organic products
                    • Most TP are used to regenerate ribulose biophosphate using ATP
                      • The Carbon Dioxide combines with the 5 carbon ribulose bisphosphate using an enzyme
                        • This produces two 3 carbon molecules of glycerate-3-phosphate
                          • ATP and NADPH from the light dependant reaction activate the GP to make triose phosphate
                            • Produces Hydrogen Ions which are collected by electron carriers NADP to make NADPH
                            • NADP reformed and sent back to the light-depenant
                              • TP converted to useful organic products
                              • Most TP are used to regenerate ribulose biophosphate using ATP
        • Light-Dependant
          • Light energy hits the chloroplast and the chlorophyll absorb the energy
            • Absorbed light energy raises electrons energy to a higher level
              • The "excited" electrons leave the chlorophyll
                • The excited electrons are taken up by electron carriers
                  • Electrons pased along a series of electron carriers
                    • Electrons lose energy as passed along chain
                      • Lost energy used to make ATP from and inorganic phosphate and ADP
                        • Light energy hits the chloroplast and the chlorophyll absorb the energy
                          • Absorbed light energy raises electrons energy to a higher level
                            • The "excited" electrons leave the chlorophyll
                              • The excited electrons are taken up by electron carriers
                                • Electrons pased along a series of electron carriers
                                  • Electrons lose energy as passed along chain
                                    • Lost energy used to make ATP from and inorganic phosphate and ADP
                                • Electrons need to be replaced
                                  • Electrons come from photolysis of water.
                                    • Produces Oxygen which is released as a waste gas
                  • Electrons need to be replaced
                    • Electrons come from photolysis of water.
                      • Produces Oxygen which is released as a waste gas
            • Takes place in the Thylakoid
        • Limiting factors of Photosynthesis
          • Light intensity
          • Temperature
          • Carbon Dioxide concentration

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