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  • Photosynthesis
    • Light - Dependent Reaction
      • Occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts.
      • Light energy splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
        • The hydrogen is used to reduce NADP to NAPDH
      • Light energy phosphorylate the ADP molecule to form ATP.
      • Light energy is first received in photosystem I and then photosystem II
        • It excites an electron which provides the energy for ATP production
    • Light Independent Reaction (Calvin Cycle)
      • Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere is fixed with RuBP.
        • RuBP is Ribulose Bisphosphate
        • The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme RUBISCO
        • It forms two molecules of GP
      • The GP then forms TP when is reduced and inputted with energy.
        • ATP and NADPH form the light dependent reaction is used
      • The TP can be made into glucose, reform RuBP or make lipids and other organic molecules.
      • Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
    • Basic Equation:
      • Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Oxygen + Glucsose
    • Limiting Factors
      • Light Intensity
        • Light limits photosynthesis as the light-dependent reaction requires the light energy to form NADPH and ATP for the light independent reaction
        • Light intensity increases so does the rate of photosynthesis up to a certain point and then it levels off as it can not happen any faster
      • Carbon Dioxide Concentration.
        • Carbon Dioxide Concentration increases the rate to a certain put but then it levels off as there is not enough RuBP to react quick enough and the enzyme RUBISCO has its active site permenantly filled.


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