Phonological Development 

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  • Phonological Development
    • Simplification
      • Deletion: child drops consonant altogether, particularly at end of word e.g. "ca" instead of "cat"
      • Substitution: child instead of dropping consonant replaces it e.g. "wegs" instead of "legs"
      • Cluster Reduction: in consonant cluster child may drop one consonant e.g. "green" instead of "green"
    • Other features
      • Addition: vowel added to end of word e.g. "dog" becomes "dogu"
      • Assimilation: when one consonant in a word changed because of influence of another in the same word e.g. "tub" becomes "bub" due o influence of /b/
      • Reduplication: when phoneme is repeated e.g. "moo-moo" for cow or "bik-bik" for biscuit
      • Voicing: when voiceless consonants like p,t,f,s replaced by voiced equivalent b, d, v, z e.g. "sock" becomes "zock"
      • De-voicing: when voiced consonant are replaced by their voiceless equivalents, so instead of saying "bag" child might say "pag"
    • Intonation
      • even at babbling stage babies begin to demonstrate intonation patterns, when using words more obvious e.g. putting stress on words "that's mine"
      • takes  longer for children to understand the complexities of intonation and stress (Cruttenden)


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