1. Personality

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Personality
    • HOLLANDER- 'personality is the sum of an individual's characteristics which make a human unique'
    • Trait perspective
      • Personality is innate and genetically determined
      • Traits are thought to be stable, enduring and consistent in all situations
      • EVAL
        • Behaviour is not always predictable
        • There are situations where individual's adapt their response to the environment
        • Ignores influence from the environment and other people
      • Personality Types: EYSENCK & CATTELL
        • EYSENCK
          • There are 4 personality types: neurotic, stable, introvert, extrovert
          • Individual's may be extrovert and stable, extrovert and neurotic, introvert and stable or introvert and neurotic
          • Eysenck later added a third scale to his model termed psychoticism
          • Psychoticism is a measure of how tender or tough-minded people are
        • CATTELL
          • He questioned whether personality could be understood by examining just 3 dimensions
          • He examined 16 personality factors in his 16PF test
      • Narrow band theory
        • GIRDANO
          • There are 2 distinct personality types; A and B
          • Type A= highly competitive, works fast, strong desire to succeed, likes control, prone to stress              Type B= opposite
    • Social learning perspective
      • Personality is shaped by the environment and our interaction with others
      • Personality is not genetically programmed
      • BANDURA
        • Learning is stimulated by environmental experiences
        • Learning takes place through a process of observing and replicating
        • Social learning is often termed vicarious learning
        • Conditions that support social learning
          • Powerful role model
          • Observer and role model are same gender
          • The learner wants to improve
          • The role model is of high status and deemed a significant other
      • EVAL
        • Does not account for genetically-determined characteristics
    • Interactionist approach
      • HOLLANDER
        • Personality has 3 levels that interact to from personality
          • 1. Psychological core: most internal, 'true self', inaccessible, most difficult to research, stable, constant over time
          • 2. Typical responses: changeable, learned behaviours, become modified by environmental influences, reflect make-up of psychological core
          • 3. Role-related behaviour: most external, dynamic, changeable, direct consequence of the immediate environment
      • This view combines that trait and social learning perspectives
      • Personality is modified and behaviour is formed when genetically-inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance
      • Behaviour is unpredictable
      • Supports the theory about typical responses emerging in certain situations
      • BOWERS
        • The ineteractionist approach explains twice as much as trait and social learning perspectives
    • The effects of personality profiling on the adoption of a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
      • EYSENCK ET AL
        • Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire,showed sports people scored highly on the scales of psychoticism and extroversion
      • SCHURR
        • Using Cattell's 16PF test, found athletes to be more independent and less anxious
      • MCKELVIE
        • Found no difference in extroversion between athletes and non-athletes however, athletes emerged to be more stable
      • WEINBERG & GOULD
        • No specific personality profile has been found that consistently distinguishes athletes from non-athletes
      • EVAL
        • Link between personality types and sport performance cannot be proven
        • There is no evidence that an ideal sports personality exists
        • Profiling results are often subjective
        • Profiling results are often inaccurate and invalid
        • The performer may unconsciously modify their behaviour to match the profile ascribed to them
        • Many profiles use self-report questionnaires which are not always reliable
        • There is a danger that profiling will stereotype a person

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Sports psychology resources »