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  • Personalities.
    • Type A Personality.
      • Time Pressured - Working against the clock, multi-tasking and unhappy doing nothing.
      • Competitive - always play to win at work and games, achievement measured in materials.
      • Anger - self-critical, hostile, anger directed internally.
    • Friedman and Rosenman.
      • Conducted a study to see if type A personality was linked with cardiovascular disease.
      • Using interviews 3200 men were categorised as type A. At the start of the process all men were healthy.
      • After 8 1/2 years, the men were revisited and it was found that 257 men had developed CHD. These results were significant even when smoking and obesity were taken into account.
      • Evaluation Points.
        • Can't be generalised.
        • Large sample size
        • Interviews are time consuming.
        • Hard to replicate
        • Correlational studies to not show causaltiy
        • Reductionist.
        • Social desirablity
        • Dated.
    • Kobassa created the idea of hardiness.
      • He said through control, challenge and commitment people are of hardiness.
      • Control - Hardy people see themselves as being in control of their lives.
      • Challenge- Hardy people see problems as a challenges to overcome , not stressors.
      • Commitment - Hardy people believe they have a sense of purpose.


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