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  • Created by: kadheeja4
  • Created on: 13-07-13 09:41
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  • periodicity
    • atomic radii
      • down a GROUP INCREASES
        • energy levels increase ,electrons increase
      • across a PERIOD DECREASES
        • no. of electrons are added into the same energy level
          • high effective nuclear charge (more protons)strong force of attraction
    • ionic radii
      • Anions(-ve ion ) larger than atoms
        • electron-electron repulsion elctrons >protons ,protons cannot pull the electrons tightly
      • Cations(+ve ion)smaller than atoms
        • protons>electrons, can pull the electrons tightly
    • First ionization energy
      • energy neede to remove the outermost electrons from 1mol of gaseous atoms to produce 1mol of 1+gaseous ions.
        • down a GROUP DECREASES easy to remove the outermost electron no attraction.
        • across a PERIOD INCREASES strong attraction dificult to remove electrons.
    • second and higher ionization energy
      • energy needed to remove an electron from +1 gasesous ions t produce +2 gaseous ions
    • Electron affinity
      • energy given off when a neutral atom in a gaseous phase gains an electron to form a -vely charged ion
        • down a GROUP DECREASES
        • across a PERIOD INCREASES


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