Peaceful Coexistence

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  • Peaceful Coexistence
    • Khrushchev
      • Stalin died 1953.
      • Wanted USSR to be unchallenged leader of socialism.
      • Wanted firm grip on satellite states.
      • Wanted to prevent Germany rearming.
      • Wanted to expand USSR's nuclear capability.
      • Wanted to reduce military spending.
      • Wanted to reduce international tension.
    • Austrian State Treaty
      • Austria divided into 4 zones post WW2.
      • USSR received economic aid.
        • Austria divided into 4 zones post WW2.
      • Austria: "Europe's Korea."
      • 1955: Britain, France, USSR and USA formed a Treaty.
      • Austria would be neutral. West would remove occupational forces from West Germany.
    • De-Stalinization and Hungary
      • 1956: Khrushchev's secret speech - denounced Stalin as a 'tyrant.'
      • De-Stalinization led to release of many political prisoners and easing of censorship.
      • Reformers in Hungary encouraged by Khrushchev's speech.
      • Uprising in Poland led to calls to end Communism in Hungary.
      • 1956: Hungarians start demonstrations, leader Gero can't control the violence.
        • Soviets stationed in Budapest forced to lead. Gero replaced with more moderate Nagy.
          • Nagy forced to bring in multi-party democracy and calls to leave the Warsaw Pact.
            • Too much for USSR - brought in tanks and troops. 35000 killed. Nagy replaced with Kadar.
      • Britain and France didn't intervene - preoccupied with Suez Crisis.
        • US didn't intervene - you don't interfere with other power's spheres.
    • Problems over Germany 1958-61
      • East Germans fled to West - brain drain. By July 1961, 30 000 fled per month. Since 1949, 3m had left.
      • Ulbricht proposed Berlin wall - Khrushchev refused.
      • 1958: Khrushchev demanded that Berlin be a free city. Ultimatum: West had 6 months to recognise DDR as independent.
      • 1959: Camp David Talks - Khrushchev first Soviet leader to visit US. Agreed with Eisenhower on diplomacy.
      • 1960 Paris Summit.
        • Khrushchev wanted to prohibit nuclear weapons in the Pacific and Germany.
          • China wouldn't agree to this.
        • Summit collapsed when U2 spy plane shot down over USSR.
          • Eisenhower claimed it was a weather plane.
          • Eisenhower's trip to USSR cancelled.
      • 1960: Restrictions on travel imposed.
      • 1961: JFK and Khrushchev Vienna Summit - no agreement.
        • JFK increased defence spending and called for build up of NATO forces.
          • August 1961: construction of Berlin Wall began.
    • The Nuclear Arms Race
      • 1945: US A-Bomb. 1949: USSR A-Bomb
      • 1952: US H-Bomb (1000x more powerful than A-Bomb.)
      • 1957: First USSR ICBM. Sputnik launched.
      • 1968: US ABMs and MIRVs.
      • 1946: Baruch Plan failed.
      • Causes
        • Protect interests - could mean concessions
        • New developments eg China 1949 led to tension.
        • Military influence - Khrushchev forced to resign 1964 after trying to slow the race.
        • Economic concerns - 30m US citizens employed in arms manufacture.
        • Khrushchev's personal insecurities - led to boasting and exaggeration that fuelled US concerns.
      • Impact
        • Rivalry - ended with US Star Wars Initiative 1980s - USSR couldn't match it.
        • MAD was a restraint. Meant conflicts had to be fought in client states eg Korea.
        • Brinkmanship - Cuban Missile crisis.
        • Bankrupted USSR.
    • The Nature of the Cold War
      • Historians eg Graebner & Morganthau play down ideology - claim superpower status more important.
        • However, capitalism and communism were important to their respective side.
    • Propoaganda
      • USA
        • Stressed values of freedom  democracy.
        • US Information Agency - views spread to 150 countries.
        • Radio eg Voice of America - spread message in over 70 languages.
        • Films eg The Red Menace
      • USSR
        • Siege mentality.
        • Zhdanovshchina - laid down arts guidelines
        • Foreign films banned.
        • 1948: USSR jammed foreign radio stations.
        • Tass - main news agency - 70% employed were secret agents.
    • Espionage
      • USA
        • Spies eg Julius Rosenberg and Harry Gold provided atomic secrets
        • CIA est 1947
        • Successes eg discovering missiles in Cuba, overthrow of left wing Allende (Chile 73)
        • Failures eg Bay of Pigs, Gary Powers and U-2 plane
      • USSR
        • KGB est 1954
        • KGB members rose to half a million.
        • Secured secrets of A-Bomb - allowed tests to go ahead several years early in 1949.
  • The Geneva Summit
    • May 1955: FRG joined NATO and started to rearm.
    • Peaceful Coexistence
      • Khrushchev
        • Stalin died 1953.
        • Wanted USSR to be unchallenged leader of socialism.
        • Wanted firm grip on satellite states.
        • Wanted to prevent Germany rearming.
        • Wanted to expand USSR's nuclear capability.
        • Wanted to reduce military spending.
        • Wanted to reduce international tension.
      • Austrian State Treaty
        • USSR received economic aid.
          • Austria: "Europe's Korea."
          • 1955: Britain, France, USSR and USA formed a Treaty.
          • Austria would be neutral. West would remove occupational forces from West Germany.
        • De-Stalinization and Hungary
          • 1956: Khrushchev's secret speech - denounced Stalin as a 'tyrant.'
          • De-Stalinization led to release of many political prisoners and easing of censorship.
          • Reformers in Hungary encouraged by Khrushchev's speech.
          • Uprising in Poland led to calls to end Communism in Hungary.
          • 1956: Hungarians start demonstrations, leader Gero can't control the violence.
            • Soviets stationed in Budapest forced to lead. Gero replaced with more moderate Nagy.
              • Nagy forced to bring in multi-party democracy and calls to leave the Warsaw Pact.
                • Too much for USSR - brought in tanks and troops. 35000 killed. Nagy replaced with Kadar.
          • Britain and France didn't intervene - preoccupied with Suez Crisis.
            • US didn't intervene - you don't interfere with other power's spheres.
        • Problems over Germany 1958-61
          • East Germans fled to West - brain drain. By July 1961, 30 000 fled per month. Since 1949, 3m had left.
          • Ulbricht proposed Berlin wall - Khrushchev refused.
          • 1958: Khrushchev demanded that Berlin be a free city. Ultimatum: West had 6 months to recognise DDR as independent.
          • 1959: Camp David Talks - Khrushchev first Soviet leader to visit US. Agreed with Eisenhower on diplomacy.
          • 1960 Paris Summit.
            • Khrushchev wanted to prohibit nuclear weapons in the Pacific and Germany.
              • China wouldn't agree to this.
            • Summit collapsed when U2 spy plane shot down over USSR.
              • Eisenhower claimed it was a weather plane.
              • Eisenhower's trip to USSR cancelled.
          • 1960: Restrictions on travel imposed.
          • 1961: JFK and Khrushchev Vienna Summit - no agreement.
            • JFK increased defence spending and called for build up of NATO forces.
              • August 1961: construction of Berlin Wall began.
        • The Nuclear Arms Race
          • 1945: US A-Bomb. 1949: USSR A-Bomb
          • 1952: US H-Bomb (1000x more powerful than A-Bomb.)
          • 1957: First USSR ICBM. Sputnik launched.
          • 1968: US ABMs and MIRVs.
          • 1946: Baruch Plan failed.
          • Causes
            • Protect interests - could mean concessions
            • New developments eg China 1949 led to tension.
            • Military influence - Khrushchev forced to resign 1964 after trying to slow the race.
            • Economic concerns - 30m US citizens employed in arms manufacture.
            • Khrushchev's personal insecurities - led to boasting and exaggeration that fuelled US concerns.
          • Impact
            • Rivalry - ended with US Star Wars Initiative 1980s - USSR couldn't match it.
            • MAD was a restraint. Meant conflicts had to be fought in client states eg Korea.
            • Brinkmanship - Cuban Missile crisis.
            • Bankrupted USSR.
        • The Nature of the Cold War
          • Historians eg Graebner & Morganthau play down ideology - claim superpower status more important.
            • However, capitalism and communism were important to their respective side.
        • Propoaganda
          • USA
            • Stressed values of freedom  democracy.
            • US Information Agency - views spread to 150 countries.
            • Radio eg Voice of America - spread message in over 70 languages.
            • Films eg The Red Menace
          • USSR
            • Siege mentality.
            • Zhdanovshchina - laid down arts guidelines
            • Foreign films banned.
            • 1948: USSR jammed foreign radio stations.
            • Tass - main news agency - 70% employed were secret agents.
        • Espionage
          • USA
            • Spies eg Julius Rosenberg and Harry Gold provided atomic secrets
            • CIA est 1947
            • Successes eg discovering missiles in Cuba, overthrow of left wing Allende (Chile 73)
            • Failures eg Bay of Pigs, Gary Powers and U-2 plane
          • USSR
            • KGB est 1954
            • KGB members rose to half a million.
            • Secured secrets of A-Bomb - allowed tests to go ahead several years early in 1949.
      • Big Four met at Geneva, 1955.
      • Khrushchev said he was willing to accept reunification of Germany if it was neutral and demilitarised.
      • Eisenhower proposed the "Open Skies Policy."
      • "Broke the ice." No practical solutions, but paved the way for future diplomacy.
    • Peaceful Coexistence Documentary

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