particles, mixtures and compounds

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  • Particles and mixtures
    • Particles-definitions
      • Atom: the smallest particle of an element
      • Molecule:cluster of non-metals covalently joined together
        • there are molecules of compounds and molecules of elements
      • Element: a pure substance that has only one type of atom in it
      • compound:a pure substance made from different elements chemically bonded together
      • Mixture: an impure substance that is not chemically bonded together and can be separated via different means
    • Simple distilation
      • Salty water is heated
        • The water vapours cool in the condenser and drip into the beaker
          • The water has condensed into the beaker and the salt is left behind
    • fractional distillation
      • water and ethanol solution is heated
        • The ethanol evaporates first as it has a lower boiling point and it is then collected into a beaker.
          • The water then evaporates and condenses into another beaker
    • paper chromatography
      • spots of ink or dye are placed on a pencil line
        • as the solvent moves up the paper some of the dye seperates and moves with it
      • This can be done on colourless substances by using a locating agent.
    • filtration
      • one beaker contains a mixture of solid and water and the other contains a funnel with filter paper in it
        • the mixture is poured into the filter funnel
          • the liquid drips through but the solids are caught in the paper
    • crystallisation
      • where there is a mixture such as salt water the substance is heated until the water has evaporated and the salt formed crystals in a residue behind


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