P1.1 - Energy transfer by heating

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  • P1.1 - Energy transfer by heating
    • Evaporation & Condensation
      • Evaporation = liquid turns into gas
        • energetic molecules escape- enter the air
          • rate increases: larger surface area - larger temprature
      • Condensation = gas turns into liquid
        • rate increases: large surface area - reducing surface temp.
    • Surfaces & Radiation
      • Dark matte- good absorber of infrared radiation- good emitters
      • Light, shiny- good reflectors of infrared readiation
    • Conduction
      • gases=poor concutors
      • ALL metals=good conductors
      • one end of solid heated - gain kinetic energy - vibrate - energy transferred
        • Occurs in metals
          • free electrons gain kinetic energy - collide with particles
    • Infrared Radiation
      • detect on skin - warmth
      • waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum
      • the hotter the object = the more infrared radiation it emits
    • Specific heat capacity
      • E=m x c x
      • greater mass=more energy required
      • Specific Heat Capacity
        • the greater the SHC = the more energy required
      • transfer energy = increase temp.
    • Energy transfer by design
      • minimise tranfser - white & shiny
        • maximize - dull & black
      • greater the temp = greater energy transfer
      • Vacuum flask: Double walled glass - sponge pad - spring support- inside silvered to stop radiation
    • States of matter
      • Solids - vibrate
        • fixed shape
      • Liquid - move about - flow
      • Gas - far apart- flows
        • Density is less that liquid or solid
    • Convection
      • occurs in fluids
        • heated + expands
          • becomes less dense and rises
            • = convection currents
              • transfers energy throughout fluid
    • Heating & insulating buildings
      • U Value
        • how much energy goes through a material
        • lower U value = better insulation
      • loft insulation
        • cavity wall insulation
          • double glazing
            • aluminium foil behind radiators

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