Organic Compounds

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  • Organic Compounds And Naming
    • Simplest organic compounds contain hydrogen and carbon ONLY.
      • Carbon:
        • Can form bonds with other carbon atoms to make chains/rings.
        • Can form single bonds/ double/triple bonds to another carbon atom.
        • Can bond with atoms or other elements e.g hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen etc.
    • Functional Group: Are a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound.
      • Molecules with the same functional group react the similar way.
      • Alkane: CnH2n+2
      • Halogenoalkanes: CnH2n+1X
    • Homologous series: A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differeing by CH2.
      • Molecules are part of a homologous series as they:
        • All share the same general formula
        • Show a gradual change in physical proprties
        • Contain the same functional group
        • Similar chemical properties
    • Empirical formula: The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
    • Molecular formula: The actual number of atoms of element in a molecule.


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