Organic Identification tests

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  • Organic Identification Tests
    • Appearance and smell
      • Observe colour and state. Smell cautiously
        • Colourless: alcohol smell
          • Alcohol/ Ethanol
        • Colourless with sharp irritating smell
          • Carboxylic acid/ ethanoic acid
        • Fruity/sweet smell
          • Ester
    • Miscibility/ solubility in water
      • Add few cm of the liquid to deionise water in test tube
        • Doesn't mix with water
          • Non-polar, cannot form hydrogen bonds with water
        • Mixes with water
          • Polar,can form hydrogen bonds woth water, possibly alcohol/carboxylic acid
    • Combustion
      • add drops of liquid on watch glass: ignite with splint
        • Clean blue flame
          • low carbon content/ possibly alcohol
        • Sooty orange flame
          • High carbon content/ possibly alkane/alkene
    • Presence of alkene C=C
      • Add few cm of bromine water to liquid in test tube
        • Yellow/orange/brown to colourless
          • Alkene present C=C
        • Remains yellow/orange/brown
          • Untitled
    • Halogens  in halogeno-alkanes
      • Add 1cm of halogenoalkane to a few cm of ethanol
        • Add silver nitrate solution and warm in water bath
          • White precipitate
            • Chloroalkane
          • Cream precipitate
            • Bromoalkane
          • Yellow precipitate
            • Untitled
    • OH Alcohol group using PCl
      • Add few cm of liquid and add few crystals of PCL
        • Test any gas released with glass rod dipped into conc.NH3 (ammonia solution)
          • Gas released, misty fumes,, solid dissapears, white smoke with conc. ammonia solution
            • OH/alcohol present, HCL gas realeased, white smoke is NH4Cl
          • No gas released, no white smoke with conc. ammonia solution
            • No OH/ alcohol present
    • Primary/ secondary alcohol
      • Mix few cm of liquid with acidified potassium dichromate solution in test tube in water bath
        • Orange to green
          • Primary or secondary alcohol
        • remains orange
          • Neither primary or secondary, possibly tertiary (if used to differentiate between alcohols)
    • COOH group in carboxylic acid
      • add half a spatula measure of solid Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 to few cm of liquid
        • Gas released, solid disappears, limewater test test for CO2
          • Carboxylic acid/ COOH present, CO2 released
        • No gas released
          • Not a carboxylic acid/COOH
    • Carboxylic acid (COOH group) using Mg
      • Add strip of Mg ribbon to few cm of liquid
        • Gas released, Mg disappears, Mg test
          • Carboxylic acid/ COOH present, H2 released
        • No gas released
          • not a carboxylic acid/ no COOH

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