Organelles

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  • Created by: emily_w
  • Created on: 16-11-14 16:36
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  • Organelles
    • Nucleus
      • Structure
        • It is the largest organelle
          • Nuclei can be 10-20µm in diameter
        • Surrounded by a double membrane
          • This membrane is called the nuclear envelope
          • Membrane has openings called nuclear pores
          • Outer membrane connects to endoplasmic reticulum
        • Nucleoplasm
          • Contains chromatin (DNA + histones) which appear as dark blobs
      • Function
        • Contains most of the cell's genetic material
        • Controls protein synthesis
          • Makes mRNA
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • YES
    • Nucleolus
      • Structure
        • No membrane
        • Dense spherical structure inside nucleus
      • Function
        • Makes RNA and ribosomes
          • These pass into cytoplasm through nuclear pores
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • YES
    • Ribosome
      • Structure
        • Very small organelles
        • Located in cytoplasm
        • Bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum
        • Consists of 2 subunits
      • Function
        • Site of protein synthesis
          • Uses mRNA for this
        • Acts as "assembly line"
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Structure
        • Flattened, membrane-bound sacs
          • sacs are called CISTERNAE
        • Ribosomes attached to surface
        • Close to nucleus because ribosomes need RNA for protein synthesis
      • Function
        • Amino acid chain pushed into cisternal space in rough endoplasmic reticulum
          • RER then pinches off a vesicle and the amino acid is transported to Golgi apparatus or cell membrane
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
      • Untitled
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Structure
        • Same as rough endoplasmic reticulum, but without ribosomes
      • Function
        • Produces lipids
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Golgi apparatus
      • Structure
        • Stack of membrane-bound and flattened sacs
      • Function
        • Receives proteins from endoplasmic reticulum
          • Modifies proteins, eg by adding glucose
        • Packages proteins into vesicles for transportation
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Mitochondria
      • Structure
        • Two membranes separated by a fluid-filled space
          • Inner membrane is folded to form cristae
        • Central part is called the matrix
        • Contains circular DNA and phosphate granules
      • Function
        • Produces ATP during respiration
        • The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Chloroplast
      • Structure
        • 2 membranes separated by fluid
        • Inner membrane has continuous network of thylakoids
      • Function
        • Site of photosynthesis
        • Uses light energy to derive carbohydrate molecules from CO2
      • Animal cell
        • NO
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Lysosome
      • Structure
        • Spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane
        • Contain proteins/enzymes
      • Function
        • Digestive enzymes break down materials
        • Acrosome is a specialised lysosome in the head of a sperm which breaks down egg
      • Animal cell
        • Yes
      • Plant cell
        • Yes
      • Visible under light microscope
        • No
    • Centrioles
      • Structure
        • Protein tubes of microtubules
      • Function
        • Form spindles during cell division
      • Animal cell
        • Yes
      • Plant cell
        • Yes
      • Visible under light microscope
        • Yes
    • Plasma membrane
      • Structure
        • Two layers of phospholipids
          • Fatty acids
        • Embedded with proteins which act as channels during diffusion
      • Function
        • Regulates substances entering and exiting cell
        • Separates cell from outside environment
      • Animal cell
        • YES
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • NO
    • Cellulose cell wall
      • Structure
        • Dependent on species
          • Bacteria have peptidoglycans
          • Fungi have glucosamine and chitin
      • Function
        • Gives cell shape and structural support
        • Protects cell from infection
        • Regulates transport in and out of cell
      • Animal cell
        • NO
      • Plant cell
        • YES
      • Visible under light microscope
        • YES
    • Vacuole
      • Structure
        • Encloses cell sap
          • Sap contains water and other dissolved substances
      • Function
        • Pigments in vacuole give flowers colour
        • Stores plant wastes
        • Tastes bitter to insects so plant will not get eaten
        • Stores salts and nutrients for plant growth
        • Provides structural support
      • Animal cell
        • No
      • Plant cell
        • Yes
      • Visible under light microscope
        • Yes
    • Vesicle
      • Structure
        • Small, membrane bound sac
      • Function
        • Transports and stores materials within the cell
      • Animal cell
        • Yes
      • Plant cell
        • Yes
      • Visible under light microsope
        • Yes

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