Organelles

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  • Organelles
    • Cell surface membrane
      • Found on surface of animal cells, inside cell wall of other cells
      • Made of lipids/protein
      • Regulates movement of substances in/out of cell
      • Receptor molecules which allow response to chemicals e.g hormones
    • Nucleus
      • Surrounded by nuclear envelope, double membrane which contains pores
      • Contains chromosomes made from protein bound linear DNA: nucleolus
      • Controls cells activities by controlling transcription of DNA
      • Pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm
      • Nucleolus makes ribosomes
    • Mitochondria
      • Double membrane, inner folded into cristae
      • Matrix inside cristae contain respiratory enzymes
      • Site of aerobic respiration
      • ATP produced
      • Found in large numbers in active cells that require lots of energy
    • Chloroplast
      • Flattened structure found in plants/algal cells
      • Double membrane with thylakoid membrane
      • Thylakoids stacked up to form grana, linked together by lamellae
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Fluid filled, membrane bound flattened sacs
      • Processes/packages new lipids/proteins
      • Makes lysosoms
    • Golgi vesicle
      • Small fluid filled sac in cytoplasm
      • Produced by GA
      • Stores lipids/proteins made by GA, transports them out of cell
    • Lysosome
      • Round organelle surrounded by membrane
      • Contains digestive enzymes, lysozymes
      • Lysozymes digest invading cells/break down worn out components of cell
    • Ribosome
      • Very small organelle, floats free cytoplasm/attached to RER
      • Made of proteins/RNA
      • Site where proteins made
    • RER
      • Studded with ribosomes
      • Folds/processes proteins made in ribosome
    • SER
      • No ribosomes
      • Synthesises/processes lipids
    • Cell Wall
      • Rigid structure surrounding cells in plants/algae/fungi
      • Plants/algae: made of cellulose, fungi: chitin
      • Supports/prevents cells from changing shape
    • Vacuole
      • Membrane bound organelle found in cytoplasm of plant cells
      • Contains cell sap
      • Surrounded by tonoplast
      • Maintains pressure/ keeps cell rigid
      • Isolates unwanted chemicals
    • Cilia
      • protrusions from cell surrounded by CSM
      • each contains microtubules
      • Formed from centrioles
      • Cilia beat/ move mucus in airways
      • contain receptors, allow cell to detect signals in environment
    • Centrioles
      • Two bundles of microtubules, made of tublin protein subunits, arranged to form cylinder
      • Before a cell divides, spindle forms centrioles
      • Before cilia form centrioles multiply and line up beneath CSM
      • Microtubules sprout out from each centriole forming cilia
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Rod like microfilaments made of actin subunits
      • Straight, cylindrical microtubules
      • Cytoskeletal motor proteins e.g. myosins, kinesins and dynesins have ATP binding site to hydrolyse it for energy
      • Protein microfilaments provide support and mechanical strength
      • Form track for motor proteins to drag organelles along
      • Form spindle before cell divides
      • Intermediate filaments anchor nucleus within cytoplasm
      • IF extend between cells enabling cell signalling and allows cells to attach to basement membrane i.e stabilising tissues

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