Political Opposition of Tsardom

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  • Political Opposition of Tsardom
    • The Revolutionaries
      • The Populists
        • Regarded the future in the hands of the peasants
        • Leaders were middle/upperclass
        • Did have 'some' influence- established violent anti-tsarist tradition
        • Went into the countryside to live + attempt to turn them into revolutionaries
          • In desperation some turned to terrorism
        • The People's Will - assassinated Alexander II
          • Justified reactionary policies
      • Believed that Russia could not progress unless the Tsarist system destroyed
      • Social Revolutionaries
        • Encompassed those that hated the Tsarist system
        • Grew out of the populist movement
        • Between 1901-05 the terrorist faction dominated,responsible for 2000 politicalassassinations
        • Land policy kept them popular with the peasants
        • Victor Chernov party leader
      • Social Democrats
        • Led by Plekhanov then Lenin
        • Bolshevik/Menshevik split by 1912
          • Dispute between Lenin and Plekhanov,series of votes showed a fair divide in the party
          • Bolshevik tactics before 1917
            • Set up revolutionary training schools
            • Fund raising
            • No threat as Mensheviks outnumbered them
            • Borgeouis and Proletariat, turn workers into revolutionaries- professionals only allowed
            • Scip capitalism in the Marxisttheory
          • Menshevik Tactics before 1917
            • Membership open to all revolutionaries
            • Through the whole Marxist theory
            • Allancewith other liberal parties
        • Lenin returned from exile to Russia in 1900
        • Formed in 1898 and their aim was to achieve revolution by following the ideas of Karl Marx
        • Hopes focused on industrial working-class
    • The Liberals
      • The Octobrists
        • Believed in the maintenance of the Russian empire-wanted constitutional and democratic advances
        • Drawn from landowning/industrial interests
        • Dated from the issuing of the October Manifesto
        • Didn't challenge the tsarist system so dismissed as a bourgeois reactionary group
      • The Kadets
        • Formedat the time of the 1905 revolution. They wanted to develop a constitutional monarchy.
        • The powers of the tsar should be limited by a democratically elected constituent
        • Party of the liberal intelligentsia
        • Most outspoken crocs of the tsar, and played role in the Feb Rev 1917
        • Leader= Milyukov


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